Sunday, 15 April 2012


This article is about the sport. For the insect, see Cricket (insect). For other uses, see Cricket (disambiguation).
Pollock to Hussey.jpg
A bowler bowling to a batsman. The paler strip is the cricket pitch. The two sets of three wooden stumps on the pitch are the wickets. The two white lines are the creases.
Highest governing body International Cricket Council
First played 16th century (modern)
Team members 11 players per side
substitute fielders (only) are permitted in cases of injury or illness
Mixed gender Single
Categorization Team, Bat-and-ball
Equipment Cricket ball, cricket bat,
wicket: stumps, bails
Venue Cricket field
Olympic 1900 Summer Olympics only
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on a field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the runs scored by the batting team. A run is scored by the striking batsman hitting the ball with his bat, running to the opposite end of the pitch and touching the crease there without being dismissed. The teams switch between batting and fielding at the end of an innings.
In professional cricket the length of a game ranges from 20 overs of six bowling deliveries per side to Test cricket played over five days. The Laws of Cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches and One Day Internationals.[1]
Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century. By the end of the 18th century, it had developed into the national sport of England. The expansion of the British Empire led to cricket being played overseas and by the mid-19th century the first international matches were being held. The ICC, the game's governing body, has ten full members.[2] The game is played particularly in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, the West Indies, Southern Africa and England.




Early cricket was at some time or another described as "a club striking a ball (like) the ancient games of club-ball, stool-ball, trap-ball, stob-ball".[3] Cricket can definitely be traced back to Tudor times in early 16th-century England. Written evidence exists of a game known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1301[4] and there has been speculation, but no evidence, that this was a form of cricket.
A number of other words have been suggested as sources for the term "cricket". In the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598,[5] it is called creckett. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch[6] krick(-e), meaning a stick (crook); or the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff.[7] In Old French, the word criquet seems to have meant a kind of club or stick.[8] In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick".[9] Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word krickstoel, meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.[10] According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de (krik ket)sen (i.e., "with the stick chase").[11] Dr Gillmeister believes that not only the name but the sport itself is of Flemish origin.[12]

The first English touring team on board ship at Liverpool in 1859
The earliest definite reference to cricket being played in England (and hence anywhere) is in evidence given at a 1598 court case which mentions that "creckett" was played on common land in Guildford, Surrey, around 1550. The court in Guildford heard on Monday, 17 January 1597 (Julian date, equating to the year 1598 in the Gregorian calendar) from a 59 year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that when he was a scholar at the "Free School at Guildford", fifty years earlier, "hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play [on the common land] at creckett and other plaies."[13][14] It is believed that it was originally a children's game but references around 1610[14] indicate that adults had started playing it and the earliest reference to inter-parish or village cricket occurs soon afterwards. In 1624, a player called Jasper Vinall was killed when he was struck on the head during a match between two parish teams in Sussex.[15]
During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is believed that the first professionals appeared in the years following the Restoration in 1660. A newspaper report survives of "a great cricket match" with eleven players a side that was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest known reference to a cricket match of such importance.
The game underwent major development in the 18th century and became the national sport of England. Betting played a major part in that development with rich patrons forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The single wicket form of the sport attracted huge crowds and wagers to match. Bowling evolved around 1760 when bowlers began to pitch the ball instead of rolling or skimming it towards the batsman. This caused a revolution in bat design because, to deal with the bouncing ball, it was necessary to introduce the modern straight bat in place of the old "hockey stick" shape. The Hambledon Club was founded in the 1760s and, for the next 20 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's Old Ground in 1787, Hambledon was both the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. New Laws introduced in the latter part of the 18th century included the three stump wicket and leg before wicket (lbw).

Don Bradman had a Test average of 99.94 and an overall first-class average of 95.14, records unmatched by any other player.[16]
The 19th century saw underarm bowling replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were controversial. Organisation of the game at county level led to the creation of the county clubs, starting with Sussex CCC in 1839, which ultimately formed the official County Championship in 1890. Meanwhile, the British Empire had been instrumental in spreading the game overseas and by the middle of the 19th century it had become well established in India, North America, the Caribbean, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In 1844, the first international cricket match took place between the United States and Canada (although neither has ever been ranked as a Test-playing nation).
In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America). The first Australian team to tour overseas was a team of Aboriginal stockmen who travelled to England in 1868 to play matches against county teams.[17] In 1862, an English team made the first tour of Australia and in 1876–77, an England team took part in the first-ever Test match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.
W.G. Grace started his long career in 1865; his career is often said to have revolutionised the sport.[18] The rivalry between England and Australia gave birth to The Ashes in 1882 and this has remained Test cricket's most famous contest[citation needed]. Test cricket began to expand in 1888–89 when South Africa played England. The last two decades before the First World War have been called the "Golden Age of cricket". It is a nostalgic name prompted by the collective sense of loss resulting from the war, but the period did produce some great players and memorable matches, especially as organised competition at county and Test level developed.
The inter-war years were dominated by one player: Australia's Don Bradman, statistically the greatest batsman of all time. It was the determination of the England team to overcome his skill that brought about the infamous Bodyline series in 1932–33, particularly from the accurate short-pitched bowling of Harold Larwood. Test cricket continued to expand during the 20th century with the addition of the West Indies, India, and New Zealand before the Second World War and then Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh in the post-war period. However, South Africa was banned from international cricket from 1970 to 1992 because of its government's apartheid policy.
Cricket entered a new era in 1963 when English counties introduced the limited overs variant. As it was sure to produce a result, limited overs cricket was lucrative and the number of matches increased. The first Limited Overs International was played in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council (ICC) saw its potential and staged the first limited overs Cricket World Cup in 1975. In the 21st century, a new limited overs form, Twenty20, has made an immediate impact.

Rules and game-play

A typical cricket field.


A cricket match is played between two teams of eleven players each[19][20] on a grassy field, typically 137–150 metres (150–160 yd) in diameter.[21] The Laws of Cricket do not specify the size or shape of the field[22] but it is often oval.
A cricket match is divided into periods called innings. During an innings (innings ends with 's' in both singular and plural form), one team fields and the other bats. The two teams switch between fielding and batting after each innings. All eleven members of the fielding team take the field, but only two members of the batting team (two batsmen) are on the field at any given time.
The key action takes place in the pitch, a rectangular strip in the centre of the field. The two batsmen face each other at opposite ends of the pitch, each behind a line on the pitch known as a crease. The fielding team's eleven members stand outside the pitch, spread out across the field.
Behind each batsman is a target called a wicket. One designated member of the fielding team, called the bowler, is given a ball, and attempts to send (bowl) the ball from one end of the pitch to the wicket behind the batsman on the other side of the pitch. The batsman tries to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket by striking the ball with a bat. If the bowler succeeds in hitting the wicket, or if the ball, after being struck by the batsman, is caught by the fielding team before it touches the ground, the batsman is dismissed. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, to be replaced by another batsman from the batting team.
If the batsman is successful in striking the ball and the ball is not caught before it hits the ground, the two batsmen may then try to score points (runs) for their team by running across the pitch, grounding their bats behind each other's crease. Each crossing and grounding by both batsmen is worth one run. The batsmen may attempt multiple runs or elect not to run at all. By attempting runs, the batsmen risk dismissal, which can happen if the fielding team retrieves the ball and hits a wicket with the ball before either batsman reaches the opposite crease.
If the batsman hits the bowled ball over the field boundary without the ball touching the field, the batting team scores six runs and may not attempt more. If the ball touches the ground and then reaches the boundary, the batting team scores four runs and may not attempt more. When the batsmen have finished attempting their runs, the ball is returned to the bowler to be bowled again. The bowler continues to bowl toward the same wicket, regardless of any switch of the batsmen's positions.[23]
After a bowler has bowled six times (an over), another member of the fielding team is designated as the new bowler. The new bowler bowls to the opposite wicket, and play continues. Fielding team members may bowl multiple times during an innings, but may not bowl two overs in succession.
The innings is complete when 10 of the 11 members of the batting team have been dismissed, one always remaining "not out", or when a set number of overs has been played. The number of innings and the number of overs per innings vary depending on the match.


The objective of each team is to score more runs than the other team. In Test cricket, it is necessary to score the most runs and dismiss the opposition twice in order to win the match, which would otherwise be drawn.

Pitch, wickets and creases

The cricket pitch dimensions
At either end of the pitch, 22 yards (20 m) apart, are placed the wickets. These serve as a target for the bowling (aka fielding) side and are defended by the batting side which seeks to accumulate runs. The pitch is 22 yards (20 m) or one chain[24] in length between the wickets and is 10 feet (3.0 m) wide. It is a flat surface and has very short grass that tends to be worn away as the game progresses. The "condition" of the pitch has a significant bearing on the match and team tactics are always determined with the state of the pitch, both current and anticipated, as a deciding factor.
Each wicket consists of three wooden stumps placed in a straight line and surmounted by two wooden crosspieces called bails; the total height of the wicket including bails is 28.5 inches (720 mm) and the combined width of the three stumps is 9 inches (230 mm).

Aerial view of the MCG displaying the stadium, ground and pitch
Four lines, known as creases, are painted onto the pitch around the wicket areas to define the batsman's "safe territory" and to determine the limit of the bowler's approach. These are called the "popping" (or batting) crease, the bowling crease and two "return" creases.

A wicket consists of three stumps that are hammered into the ground, and topped with two bails.
The stumps are placed in line on the bowling creases and so these must be 22 yards (20 m) apart. A bowling crease is 8 feet 8 inches (2.64 m) long with the middle stump placed dead centre. The popping crease has the same length, is parallel to the bowling crease and is 4 feet (1.2 m) in front of the wicket. The return creases are perpendicular to the other two; they are adjoined to the ends of the popping crease and are drawn through the ends of the bowling crease to a length of at least 8 feet (2.4 m).
When bowling the ball, the bowler's back foot in his "delivery stride" must land within the two return creases while his front foot must land on or behind the popping crease. If the bowler breaks this rule, the umpire calls "No ball".
The importance of the popping crease to the batsman is that it marks the limit of his safe territory for he can be stumped or run out (see Dismissals below) if the wicket is broken while he is "out of his ground".

Bat and ball

The essence of the sport is that a bowler delivers the ball from his end of the pitch towards the batsman who, armed with a bat is "on strike" at the other end.
The bat is made of wood (usually White Willow) and has the shape of a blade topped by a cylindrical handle. The blade must not be more than 4.25 inches (108 mm) wide and the total length of the bat not more than 38 inches (970 mm).
The ball is a hard leather-seamed spheroid with a circumference of 9 inches (230 mm). The hardness of the ball, which can be delivered at speeds of more than 90 miles per hour (140 km/h), is a matter for concern and batsmen wear protective clothing including pads (designed to protect the knees and shins), batting gloves for the hands, a helmet for the head and a box inside the trousers (to protect the crotch area). Some batsmen wear additional padding inside their shirts and trousers such as thigh pads, arm pads, rib protectors and shoulder pads.

Umpires and scorers

The game on the field is regulated by two umpires, one of whom stands behind the wicket at the bowler's end, the other in a position called "square leg", a position 15–20 metres to the side of the "on strike" batsman. When the bowler delivers the ball, the umpire at the wicket is between the bowler and the non-striker. The umpires confer if there is doubt about playing conditions and can postpone the match by taking the players off the field if necessary, for example rain or deterioration of the light.

An umpire
Off the field and in televised matches, there is often a third umpire who can make decisions on certain incidents with the aid of video evidence. The third umpire is mandatory under the playing conditions for Test matches and limited overs internationals played between two ICC full members. These matches also have a match referee whose job is to ensure that play is within the Laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.
Off the field, the match details including runs and dismissals are recorded by two official scorers, one representing each team. The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire. For example, the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that the batsman is out (has been dismissed); he raises both arms above his head if the batsman has hit the ball for six runs. The scorers are required by the Laws of cricket to record all runs scored, wickets taken and overs bowled. In practice, they accumulate much additional data such as bowling analyses and run rates.


The innings (ending with 's' in both singular and plural form) is the term used for the collective performance of the batting side.[25] In theory, all eleven members of the batting side take a turn to bat but, for various reasons, an innings can end before they all do so.
Depending on the type of match being played, each team has one or two innings apiece. The term "innings" is also sometimes used to describe an individual batsman's contribution ("he played a fine innings").
The main aim of the bowler, supported by his fielders, is to dismiss the batsman. A batsman when dismissed is said to be "out" and that means he must leave the field of play and be replaced by the next batsman on his team. When ten batsmen have been dismissed (i.e., are out), then the whole team is dismissed and the innings is over. The last batsman, the one who has not been dismissed, is not allowed to continue alone as there must always be two batsmen "in". This batsman is termed "not out".
An innings can end early for three reasons: because the batting side's captain has chosen to "declare" the innings closed (which is a tactical decision), or because the batting side has achieved its target and won the game, or because the game has ended prematurely due to bad weather or running out of time. In each of these cases the team's innings ends with two "not out" batsmen, unless the innings is declared closed at the fall of a wicket and the next batsman has not joined in the play.
In limited overs cricket, there might be two batsmen still "not out" when the last of the allotted overs has been bowled.


The bowler bowls the ball in sets of six deliveries (or "balls") and each set of six balls is called an over. This name came about because the umpire calls "Over!" when six balls have been bowled. At this point, another bowler is deployed at the other end, and the fielding side changes ends while the batsmen do not. A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs, although a bowler can bowl unchanged at the same end for several overs. The batsmen do not change ends and so the one who was non-striker is now the striker and vice-versa. The umpires also change positions so that the one who was at square leg now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker's end and vice-versa.

Team structure

A team consists of eleven players. Depending on his or her primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A well-balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Teams nearly always include a specialist wicket-keeper because of the importance of this fielding position. Each team is headed by a captain who is responsible for making tactical decisions such as determining the batting order, the placement of fielders and the rotation of bowlers.
A player who excels in both batting and bowling is known as an all-rounder. One who excels as a batsman and wicket-keeper is known as a "wicket-keeper/batsman", sometimes regarded as a type of all-rounder. True all-rounders are rare as most players focus on either batting or bowling skills.


A typical bowling action

Sri Lankan bowler Muttiah Muralitharan, the highest wicket taker in both Test and ODI forms of cricket bowls to Adam Gilchrist.
The bowler reaches his delivery stride by means of a "run-up", although some bowlers with a very slow delivery take no more than a couple of steps before bowling. A fast bowler needs momentum and takes quite a long run-up, running very fast as he does so.
The fastest bowlers can deliver the ball at a speed of over 90 miles per hour (140 km/h) and they sometimes rely on sheer speed to try and defeat the batsman, who is forced to react very quickly. Other fast bowlers rely on a mixture of speed and guile. Some fast bowlers make use of the seam of the ball so that it "curves" or "swings" in flight. This type of delivery can deceive a batsman into mistiming his shot so that the ball touches the edge of the bat and can then be "caught behind" by the wicketkeeper or a slip fielder.
At the other end of the bowling scale is the "spinner" who bowls at a relatively slow pace and relies entirely on guile to deceive the batsman. A spinner will often "buy his wicket" by "tossing one up" (in a slower, higher parabolic path) to lure the batsman into making a poor shot. The batsman has to be very wary of such deliveries as they are often "flighted" or spun so that the ball will not behave quite as he expects and he could be "trapped" into getting himself out.
In between the pacemen and the spinners are the "medium pacers" who rely on persistent accuracy to try and contain the rate of scoring and wear down the batsman's concentration.
All bowlers are classified according to their looks or style. The classifications, as with much cricket terminology, can be very confusing. Hence, a bowler could be classified as LF, meaning he is a left arm fast bowler; or as LBG, meaning he is a right arm spin bowler who bowls deliveries that are called a "leg break" and a "Googly".
During the bowling action the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out. If the elbow straightens illegally then the square-leg umpire may call no-ball: this is known as "throwing" or "chucking", and can be difficult to detect. The current laws allow a bowler to straighten his arm 15 degrees or less.


All eleven players on the fielding side take the field together. One of them is the wicket-keeper aka "keeper" who operates behind the wicket being defended by the batsman on strike. Wicket-keeping is normally a specialist occupation and his primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman does not hit, so that the batsmen cannot run byes. He wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so), a box over the groin, and pads to cover his lower legs. Owing to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat. He is the only player who can get a batsman out stumped.
Apart from the one currently bowling, the other nine fielders are tactically deployed by the team captain in chosen positions around the field. These positions are not fixed but they are known by specific and sometimes colourful names such as "slip", "third man", "silly mid on" and "long leg". There are always many unprotected areas.
The captain is the most important member of the fielding side as he determines all the tactics including who should bowl (and how); and he is responsible for "setting the field", though usually in consultation with the bowler.
In all forms of cricket, if a fielder gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him. The substitute cannot bowl, act as a captain or keep wicket. The substitute leaves the field when the injured player is fit to return.


English cricketer W.G. Grace "taking guard" in 1883. His pads and bat are very similar to those used today. The gloves have evolved somewhat. Many modern players utilise more defensive equipment than was available to Grace, notably helmets and arm guards.
At any one time, there are two batsmen in the playing area. One takes station at the striker's end to defend the wicket as above and to score runs if possible. His partner, the non-striker, is at the end where the bowler is operating.
Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, decided by the team captain. The first two batsmen – the "openers" – usually face the hostile bowling from fresh fast bowlers with a new ball. The top batting positions are usually given to the most competent batsmen in the team, and the non-batsmen typically bat last. The pre-announced batting order is not mandatory and when a wicket falls any player who has not yet batted may be sent in next.
If a batsman "retires" (usually due to injury) and cannot return, he is actually "not out" and his retirement does not count as a dismissal, though in effect he has been dismissed because his innings is over. Substitute batsmen are not allowed.
A skilled batsman can use a wide array of "shots" or "strokes" in both defensive and attacking mode. The idea is to hit the ball to best effect with the flat surface of the bat's blade. If the ball touches the side of the bat it is called an "edge". Batsmen do not always seek to hit the ball as hard as possible, and a good player can score runs just by making a deft stroke with a turn of the wrists or by simply "blocking" the ball but directing it away from fielders so that he has time to take a run.
There is a wide variety of shots played in cricket. The batsman's repertoire includes strokes named according to the style of swing and the direction aimed: e.g., "cut", "drive", "hook", "pull".
Note that a batsman does not have to play a shot and can "leave" the ball to go through to the wicketkeeper, providing he thinks it will not hit his wicket. Equally, he does not have to attempt a run when he hits the ball with his bat. He can deliberately use his leg to block the ball and thereby "pad it away" but this is risky because of the leg before wicket rule.
In the event of an injured batsman being fit to bat but not to run, the umpires and the fielding captain may allow another member of the batting side to be a runner. The runner's only task is to run between the wickets instead of the injured batsman. The runner is required to wear and carry exactly the same equipment as the incapacitated batsman. It is possible for both batsmen to have runners.


The directions in which a right-handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots. The diagram for a left-handed batsman is a mirror image of this one.
The primary concern of the batsman on strike (i.e., the "striker") is to prevent the ball hitting the wicket and secondarily to score runs by hitting the ball with his bat so that he and his partner have time to run from one end of the pitch to the other before the fielding side can return the ball. To register a run, both runners must touch the ground behind the crease with either their bats or their bodies (the batsmen carry their bats as they run). Each completed run increments the score.
More than one run can be scored from a single hit; but, while hits worth one to three runs are common, the size of the field is such that it is usually difficult to run four or more. To compensate for this, hits that reach the boundary of the field are automatically awarded four runs if the ball touches the ground en route to the boundary or six runs if the ball clears the boundary on the full. The batsmen do not need to run if the ball reaches or crosses the boundary.

West Indian Brian Lara holds the record for highest score in both Tests and first-class cricket.
Hits for five are unusual and generally rely on the help of "overthrows" by a fielder returning the ball. If an odd number of runs is scored by the striker, the two batsmen have changed ends, and the one who was non-striker is now the striker. Only the striker can score individual runs, but all runs are added to the team's total.
The decision to attempt a run is ideally made by the batsman who has the better view of the ball's progress, and this is communicated by calling: "yes", "no" and "wait" are often heard.
Running is a calculated risk because if a fielder breaks the wicket with the ball while the nearest batsman is out of his ground (i.e., he does not have part of his body or bat in contact with the ground behind the popping crease), the batsman is run out.
A team's score is reported in terms of the number of runs scored and the number of batsmen that have been dismissed. For example, if five batsmen are out and the team has scored 224 runs, they are said to have scored 224 for the loss of 5 wickets (commonly shortened to "224 for five" and written 224/5 or, in Australia, "five for 224" and 5/224).


Additional runs can be gained by the batting team as extras (called "sundries" in Australia) due to errors made by the fielding side. This is achieved in four ways:
  1. No ball: a penalty of one extra that is conceded by the bowler if he breaks the rules of bowling either by (a) using an inappropriate arm action; (b) overstepping the popping crease; (c) having a foot outside the return crease. In addition, the bowler has to re-bowl the ball. In limited overs matches, a no ball is called if the bowling team's field setting fails to comply with the restrictions. In shorter formats of the game (20–20, ODI) the free hit rule has been introduced. The ball following a front foot no-ball will be a free-hit for the batsman, whereby he is safe from losing his wicket except for being run-out.
  2. Wide: a penalty of one extra that is conceded by the bowler if he bowls so that the ball is out of the batsman's reach; as with a no ball, a wide must be re-bowled.
  3. Bye: extra(s) awarded if the batsman misses the ball and it goes past the wicketkeeper to give the batsmen time to run in the conventional way (note that one mark of a good wicketkeeper is one who restricts the tally of byes to a minimum).
  4. Leg bye: extra(s) awarded if the ball hits the batsman's body, but not his bat, while attempting a legitimate shot, and it goes away from the fielders to give the batsmen time to run in the conventional way.
When the bowler has bowled a no ball or a wide, his team incurs an additional penalty because that ball (i.e., delivery) has to be bowled again and hence the batting side has the opportunity to score more runs from this extra ball. The batsmen have to run (i.e., unless the ball goes to the boundary for four) to claim byes and leg byes but these only count towards the team total, not to the striker's individual total for which runs must be scored off the bat.

Dismissals (outs)

There are ten ways in which a batsman can be dismissed; five relatively common and five extremely rare. The common forms of dismissal are "bowled", "caught", "leg before wicket" (lbw), "run out", and "stumped". Less common methods are "hit wicket", "hit the ball twice", "obstructed the field", "handled the ball" and "timed out" - these are almost unknown in the professional game.
Before the umpire will award a dismissal and declare the batsman to be out, a member of the fielding side (generally the bowler) must "appeal". This is invariably done by asking (or shouting) "how's that?" - normally reduced to howzat? If the umpire agrees with the appeal, he will raise a forefinger and say "Out!". Otherwise he will shake his head and say "Not out". Appeals are particularly loud when the circumstances of the claimed dismissal are unclear, as is always the case with lbw and often with run outs and stumpings.
  1. Bowled: the bowler has hit the wicket with the delivery and the wicket has "broken" with at least one bail being dislodged (note that if the ball hits the wicket without dislodging a bail it is not out).[26]
  2. Caught: the batsman has hit the ball with his bat, or with his hand which was holding the bat, and the ball has been caught before it has touched the ground by a member of the fielding side.[27]
  3. Leg before wicket (lbw): the ball has hit the batsman's body (including his clothing, pads etc. but not the bat, or a hand holding the bat) when it would have gone on to hit the stumps. This rule exists mainly to prevent the batsman from guarding his wicket with his legs instead of the bat. To be given out lbw, the ball must not bounce outside leg stump or, if the batsman made a genuine attempt to play the ball, outside off stump.[28]
  4. Run out: a member of the fielding side has broken or "put down" the wicket with the ball while the nearest batsman was out of his ground; this usually occurs by means of an accurate throw to the wicket while the batsmen are attempting a run, although a batsman can be given out Run out even when he is not attempting a run; he merely needs to be out of his ground.[29]
  5. Stumped is similar except that it is done by the wicketkeeper after the batsman has missed the bowled ball and has stepped out of his ground, and is not attempting a run.[30]
  6. Hit wicket: a batsman is out hit wicket if he dislodges one or both bails with his bat, person, clothing or equipment in the act of receiving a ball, or in setting off for a run having just received a ball.[31]
  7. Hit the ball twice is very unusual and was introduced as a safety measure to counter dangerous play and protect the fielders. The batsman may legally play the ball a second time only to stop the ball hitting the wicket after he has already played it.[32]
  8. Obstructing the field: another unusual dismissal which tends to involve a batsman deliberately getting in the way of a fielder.[33]
  9. Handled the ball: a batsman must not deliberately touch the ball with his hand, for example to protect his wicket. Note that the batsman's hand or glove counts as part of the bat while the hand is holding the bat, so batsmen are frequently caught off their gloves (i.e. the ball hits, and is deflected by, the glove and can then be caught).[34]
  10. Timed out usually means that the next batsman did not arrive at the wicket within three minutes of the previous one being dismissed.[35]
In the vast majority of cases, it is the striker who is out when a dismissal occurs. If the non-striker is dismissed it is usually by being run out, but he could also be dismissed for obstructing the field, handling the ball or being timed out.
A batsman may leave the field without being dismissed. If injured or taken ill the batsman may temporarily retire, and be replaced by the next batsman. This is recorded as retired hurt or retired ill. The retiring batsman is not out, and may resume the innings later. An unimpaired batsman may retire, and this is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. Batsmen cannot be out bowled, caught, leg before wicket, stumped or hit wicket off a no ball. They cannot be out bowled, caught, leg before wicket, or hit the ball twice off a wide. Some of these modes of dismissal can occur without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out is, by its nature, a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled.

Innings closed

An innings is closed when:
  1. Ten of the eleven batsmen are out (have been dismissed); in this case, the team is said to be "all out"
  2. The team has only one batsman left who can bat, one or more of the remaining players being unavailable owing to injury, illness or absence; again, the team is said to be "all out"
  3. The team batting last reaches the score required to win the match
  4. The predetermined number of overs has been bowled (in a one-day match only, commonly 50 overs; or 20 in Twenty20)
  5. A captain declares his team's innings closed while at least two of his batsmen are not out (this does not apply in one-day limited over matches)


If the team that bats last is all out having scored fewer runs than their opponents, the team is said to have "lost by n runs" (where n is the difference between the number of runs scored by the teams). If the team that bats last scores enough runs to win, it is said to have "won by n wickets", where n is the number of wickets left to fall. For instance a team that passes its opponents' score having only lost six wickets would have won "by four wickets".
In a two-innings-a-side match, one team's combined first and second innings total may be less than the other side's first innings total. The team with the greater score is then said to have won by an innings and n runs, and does not need to bat again: n is the difference between the two teams' aggregate scores.
If the team batting last is all out, and both sides have scored the same number of runs, then the match is a tie; this result is quite rare in matches of two innings a side. In the traditional form of the game, if the time allotted for the match expires before either side can win, then the game is declared a draw.
If the match has only a single innings per side, then a maximum number of deliveries for each innings is often imposed. Such a match is called a "limited overs" or "one-day" match, and the side scoring more runs wins regardless of the number of wickets lost, so that a draw cannot occur. If this kind of match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula, known as the Duckworth-Lewis method after its developers, is often used to recalculate a new target score. A one-day match can also be declared a "no-result" if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs have been bowled by either team, in circumstances that make normal resumption of play impossible; for example, wet weather.

Distinctive elements

Individual focus

For a team sport, cricket places individual players under unusual scrutiny and pressure. Bowler, Batsman, and fielder all act essentially independent of each other. While team managements can signal bowler or batsman to pursue certain tactics, the execution of the play itself is a series of solitary acts. Cricket is more similar to baseball than many other team sports in this regard: while the individual focus in cricket is slightly mitigated by the importance of the batting partnership and the practicalities of running, it is enhanced by the fact that a batsman may occupy the wicket for a long time.

Spirit of the Game

Cricket is a unique game where in addition to the laws, the players have to abide by the "Spirit of the Game".[36] The standard of sportsmanship has historically been considered so high that the phrase "it's just not cricket" was coined in the 19th Century to describe unfair or underhanded behaviour in any walk of life. In the last few decades though, cricket has become increasingly fast-paced and competitive, increasing the use of appealing and sledging, although players are still expected to abide by the umpires' rulings without argument, and for the most part they do. Beginning in 2001, the MCC has held an annual lecture named after Colin Cowdrey on the spirit of the game.[37] Even in the modern game fielders are known to signal to the umpire that a boundary was hit, despite what could have been considered a spectacular save (though they might be found out by the TV replays anyway). In addition to this, some batsmen have been known to "walk" when they think they are out even if the umpire does not declare them out. This is a high level of sportsmanship, as a batsman can easily take advantage of incorrect umpiring decisions.

Influence of weather

Cricket is a sport played predominantly in the drier periods of the year. But, even so, the weather is a major factor in all cricket matches.
A scheduled game of cricket cannot be played in wet weather. Dampness affects the bounce of the ball on the wicket and is a risk to all players involved in the game. Many grounds have facilities to cover the cricket pitch (or the wicket). Covers can be in the form of sheets being laid over the wicket to elevated covers on wheels (using the same concept as an umbrella) to even hover covers which form an airtight seal around the wicket. However, most grounds do not have the facilities to cover the outfield. This means that in the event of heavy bouts of bad weather, games may be cancelled, abandoned or suspended due to an unsafe outfield.
Another factor in cricket is the amount of light available. At grounds without floodlights (or in game formats which disallow the use of floodlights), umpires can stop play in the event of bad light as it becomes too difficult for the batsmen to be able to see the ball coming at them, (and in extreme cases, members of the fielding team).
On the other hand, in instances of good light, batsmen can utilize sight-screens which enable batsmen to have a white background against which they can pick out the red ball (or black background for white ball) with greater ease.
The umpires always have the final decision on weather related issues.

Uniqueness of each field

Unlike those of most sports, cricket playing fields can vary significantly in size and shape. While the dimensions of the pitch and infield are specifically regulated, the Laws of Cricket do not specify the size or shape of the field.[22] The field boundaries are sometimes painted and sometimes marked by a rope. Pitch and outfield variations can have a significant effect on how balls behave and are fielded as well as on batting. Pitches vary in consistency, and thus in the amount of bounce, spin, and seam movement available to the bowler. Hard pitches are usually good to bat on because of high but even bounce. Dry pitches tend to deteriorate for batting as cracks often appear, and when this happens to the pitch, spinners can play a major role. Damp pitches, or pitches covered in grass (termed "green" pitches), allow good fast bowlers to extract extra bounce. Such pitches tend to offer help to fast bowlers throughout the match, but become better for batting as the game goes on. While players of other outdoor sports deal with similar variations of field surface and stadium covering, the size and shape of their fields are much more standardized. Other local factors, such as altitude and climate, can also significantly affect play. These physical variations create a distinctive set of playing conditions at each ground. A given ground may acquire a reputation as batsman friendly or bowler friendly if one or the other discipline notably benefits from its unique mix of elements. The absence of a standardized field affects not only how particular games play out, but the nature of team makeup and players' statistical records.

Types of matches

Cricket is a multi-faceted sport which, in very broad terms, can be divided into major cricket and minor cricket based on playing standards. A more pertinent division, particularly in terms of major cricket, is between matches in which the teams have two innings apiece and those in which they have a single innings each. The former, known as first-class cricket, has a duration of three to five days (there have been examples of "timeless" matches too); the latter, known as limited overs cricket because each team bowls a limit of typically 50 or 20 overs, has a planned duration of one day only (a match can be extended if necessary due to bad weather, etc.).
Typically, two-innings matches have at least six hours of playing time each day. Limited overs matches often last six hours or more. There are usually formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea with brief informal breaks for drinks. There is also a short interval between innings. Historically, a form of cricket known as single wicket had been extremely successful and many of these contests in the 18th and 19th centuries qualify as major cricket matches. In this form, although each team may have from one to six players, there is only one batsman at a time and he must face every delivery bowled while his innings lasts. Single wicket has rarely been played since limited overs cricket began.

Test cricket

A Test match between South Africa and England in January 2005. The men wearing black trousers are the umpires. Teams in Test cricket, first-class cricket and club cricket wear traditional white uniforms and use red cricket balls.
Test cricket is the highest standard of first-class cricket. A Test match is an international fixture between teams representing those countries that are Full Members of the ICC.
Although the term "Test match" was not coined until much later, Test cricket is deemed to have begun with two matches between Australia and England in the 1876–77 Australian season. Subsequently, eight other national teams have achieved Test status: South Africa (1889), West Indies (1928), New Zealand (1929), India (1932), Pakistan (1952), Sri Lanka (1982), Zimbabwe (1992) and Bangladesh (2000). Zimbabwe suspended its Test status in 2006 due to its inability to compete against other Test teams,[38] and returned in 2011.[39]
Welsh players are eligible to play for England, which is in effect an England and Wales team. The West Indies team comprises players from numerous states in the Caribbean, notably Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, the Leeward Islands and the Windward Islands.
Test matches between two teams are usually played in a group of matches called a "series". Matches last up to five days and a series normally consists of three to five matches. Test matches that are not finished within the allotted time are drawn. In the case of Test and first-class cricket: the possibility of a draw often encourages a team that is batting last and well behind to bat defensively, giving up any faint chance at a win to avoid a loss.[40]
Since 1882, most Test series between England and Australia have been played for a trophy known as The Ashes. Some other bilateral series have individual trophies too: for example, the Wisden Trophy is contested by England and West Indies; the Frank Worrell Trophy by Australia and West Indies and the Border-Gavaskar Trophy between India and Australia.

Limited overs

An ODI match between India and Australia in January 2004. The men wearing black trousers are the umpires. Teams in limited overs games, such as ODIs and T20s, wear multi-coloured uniforms and use white cricket balls.
Standard limited overs cricket was introduced in England in the 1963 season in the form of a knockout cup contested by the first-class county clubs. In 1969, a national league competition was established. The concept was gradually introduced to the other major cricket countries and the first limited overs international was played in 1971. In 1975, the first Cricket World Cup took place in England. Limited overs cricket has seen various innovations including the use of multi-coloured kit and floodlit matches using a white ball.
A "one day match", named so because each match is scheduled for completion in a single day, is the common form of limited overs cricket played on an international level. In practice, matches sometimes continue on a second day if they have been interrupted or postponed by bad weather. The main objective of a limited overs match is to produce a definite result and so a conventional draw is not possible, but matches can be undecided if the scores are tied or if bad weather prevents a result. Each team plays one innings only and faces a limited number of overs, usually a maximum of 50. The Cricket World Cup is held in one day format and the last World Cup in 2011 was won by the co-hosts, India. The next World Cup will hosted by Australia and New Zealand in 2015.
Twenty20 is a new variant of limited overs itself with the purpose being to complete the match within about three hours, usually in an evening session. The original idea, when the concept was introduced in England in 2003, was to provide workers with an evening entertainment. It was commercially successful and has been adopted internationally. The inaugural Twenty20 World Championship was held in 2007 and won by India. 2009's Twenty20 World Championship was staged in England and won by Pakistan. The next Twenty20 World Championship will be held in the West Indies. After the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 many domestic Twenty20 leagues were born. First of them was Indian Cricket League which is a rebel league since it is unauthorized by BCCI and led to form an official league called the Indian Premier League. Both these leagues are cash rich and attracted players and audience around the globe. Recently Twenty20 Champions League was formed as a tournament for domestic clubs of various countries.

National championships

Yorkshire County Cricket Club in 1895. The team won the first of its 30 County Championship titles in 1893.
First-class cricket includes Test cricket but the term is generally used to refer to the highest level of domestic cricket in those countries with full ICC membership, although there are exceptions to this. First-class cricket in England is played for the most part by the 18 county clubs which contest the County Championship. The concept of a champion county has existed since the 18th century but the official competition was not established until 1890. The most successful club has been Yorkshire County Cricket Club with 30 official titles.
Australia established its national first-class championship in 1892–93 when the Sheffield Shield was introduced. In Australia, the first-class teams represent the various states. New South Wales has won the maximum number of titles with 45 to 2008.
National championship trophies to be established elsewhere included the Ranji Trophy (India), Plunket Shield (New Zealand), Currie Cup (South Africa) and Shell Shield (West Indies). Some of these competitions have been updated and renamed in recent years.
Domestic limited overs competitions began with England's Gillette Cup knockout in 1963. Countries usually stage seasonal limited overs competitions in both knockout and league format. In recent years, national Twenty20 competitions have been introduced, usually in knockout form though some incorporate mini-leagues.

Other types of matches

Indian boys playing tennis ball cricket on the street in Uttar Pradesh, India.
There are numerous variations of the sport played throughout the world that include indoor cricket, French cricket, beach cricket, Kwik cricket and all sorts of card games and board games that have been inspired by cricket. In these variants, the rules are often changed to make the game playable with limited resources or to render it more convenient and enjoyable for the participants.
Indoor cricket is played in a netted, indoor arena, and is quite formal but many of the outdoor variants are very informal.
Families and teenagers play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, and the cities of India and Pakistan play host to countless games of "Gully Cricket" or "tapeball" in their long narrow streets. Sometimes the rules are improvised: e.g. it may be agreed that fielders can catch the ball with one hand after one bounce and claim a wicket; or if only a few people are available then everyone may field while the players take it in turns to bat and bowl. Tennis balls and homemade bats are often used, and a variety of objects may serve as wickets: for example, the batter's legs as in French cricket, which did not in fact originate in France, and is usually played by small children.
In Kwik cricket, the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game designed to appeal to children, which is often used PE lessons at English schools. Another modification to increase the pace of the game is the "Tip and Run", "Tipity" Run, "Tipsy Run" or "Tippy-Go" rule, in which the batter must run when the ball touches the bat, even if it the contact is unintentional or minor. This rule, seen only in impromptu games, speeds the match up by removing the batsman's right to block the ball.
In Samoa a form of cricket called Kilikiti is played in which hockey stick-shaped bats are used. In original English cricket, the hockey stick shape was replaced by the modern straight bat in the 1760s after bowlers began to pitch the ball instead of rolling or skimming it. In Estonia, teams gather over the winter for the annual Ice Cricket tournament. The game juxtaposes the normal summer pursuit with harsh, wintry conditions. Rules are otherwise similar to those for the six-a-side game.
In addition, there is also Tape ball and Tennis ball cricket. Both variations use a tennis ball instead of a regular cricket ball to play. In Tape ball cricket, the ball is additionally covered with electric tape. The variation was pioneered in Pakistan and is greatly attributed to Pakistan's famous production of Fast bowlers as children are brought up playing the game using a tape ball in which various skills are developed. The increasing popularity of the tape ball in informal, local cricket has transformed the way games are played in cricket-loving nations such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and India.

International structure

ICC member nations. The (highest level) Test playing nations are shown in orange; the associate member nations are shown in yellow; the affiliate member nations are shown in purple.
The International Cricket Council (ICC), which has its headquarters in Dubai, is the international governing body of cricket. It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from England, Australia and South Africa, renamed the International Cricket Conference in 1965, and took up its current name in 1989.
The ICC has 104 members: 10 Full Members that play official Test matches, 34 Associate Members, and 60 Affiliate Members.[41] The ICC is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket's major international tournaments, notably the Cricket World Cup. It also appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in its country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. In the West Indies these matters are addressed by the West Indies Cricket Board which consists of members appointed by four national boards and two multi-national boards.


Full Members

Full Members are the governing bodies for cricket in a country or associated countries. Full Members may also represent a geographical area. All Full Members have a right to send one representative team to play official Test matches. Also, all Full Member nations are automatically qualified to play ODIs and Twenty20 Internationals.[42] West Indies cricket team does not represent one country instead an amalgamation of over 20 countries from the Caribbean. The English Cricket team represents both England and Wales.
Nation Governing body Member since Current Test Rankings Current ODI Rankings Current T20 Rankings
 Australia Cricket Australia 15 July 1909[42] 4 1 5
 Bangladesh Bangladesh Cricket Board 26 June 2000[42] 9 9
 England England and Wales Cricket Board 15 July 1909[42] 1 6 1
 India Board of Control for Cricket in India 31 May 1926[42] 3 2 7
 New Zealand New Zealand Cricket 31 May 1926[42] 8 7 2
 Pakistan Pakistan Cricket Board 28 July 1953[42] 5 5 6
 South Africa Cricket South Africa 15 July 1909A[42] 2 3 4
 Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Cricket 21 July 1981[42] 6 4 3
 West Indies West Indies Cricket Board 31 May 1926[42] 7 8 8
 Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Cricket 6 July 1992[42] 10 10
AResigned May 1961, readmitted 10 July 1991.

Top Associate and Affiliate Members

All the associate and affiliate members are not qualified to play Test Cricket, however ICC grants One Day International status to its associate and affiliate members based on their success in the World Cricket League. The top six teams will be awarded One day international and Twenty20 International status, which will allow the associate and affiliate teams to be eligible to play the full members and play official ODI cricket.
The associate and affiliate teams who currently hold ODI and T20I status:
Nation Governing body Member since Current ODI Rankings
 Afghanistan Afghanistan Cricket Board 2001[43] 14
 Canada Cricket Canada 1968[42] 16
 Ireland Cricket Ireland 1993[42] 11
 Kenya Cricket Kenya 1981[42] 13
 Netherlands Koninklijke Nederlandse Cricket Bond 1966[42] 12
 Scotland Cricket Scotland 1994[42] 15


Organized cricket lends itself to statistics to a greater degree than many other sports. Each play is discrete and has a relatively small number of possible outcomes. At the professional level, statistics for Test cricket, one-day internationals, and first-class cricket are recorded separately. However, since Test matches are a form of first-class cricket, a player's first-class statistics will include his Test match statistics—but not vice versa. The Guide to Cricketers was a cricket annual edited by Fred Lillywhite between 1849 and his death in 1866. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack was founded in 1864 by the English cricketer John Wisden (1826–1884) as a competitor to The Guide to Cricketers. Its annual publication has continued uninterrupted to the present day, making it the longest running sports annual in history.
Certain traditional statistics are familiar to most cricket fans
The basic batting statistics include:
  • Innings (I): The number of innings in which the batsman actually batted.
  • Not outs (NO): The number of times the batsman was not out at the conclusion of an innings they batted in.1
  • Runs (R): The number of runs scored.
  • Highest Score (HS/Best): The highest score ever made by the batsman.
  • Batting Average (Ave): The total number of runs divided by the total number of innings in which the batsman was out. Ave = Runs/[I - NO] (also Avge or Avg.)
  • Centuries (100): The number of innings in which the batsman scored one hundred runs or more.
  • Half-centuries (50): The number of innings in which the batsman scored fifty to ninety-nine runs (centuries do not count as half-centuries as well).
  • Balls Faced (BF): The total number of balls received, including no balls but not including wides.
  • Strike Rate (SR): The number of runs scored per 100 balls faced. (SR = [100 * Runs]/BF)
  • Run Rate (RR): Is the number of runs a batsman (or the batting side) scores in an over of six balls.
The basic bowling statistics include:
  • Overs (O): The number of overs bowled.
  • Balls (B): The number of balls bowled. Overs is more traditional, but balls is a more useful statistic because the number of balls per over has varied historically.
  • Maiden Overs (M): The number of maiden overs (overs in which the bowler conceded zero runs) bowled.
  • Runs (R): The number of runs conceded.
  • Wickets (W): The number of wickets taken.
  • No balls (Nb): The number of no balls bowled.
  • Wides (Wd): The number of wides bowled.
  • Bowling Average (Ave): The average number of runs conceded per wicket. (Ave = Runs/W)
  • 'Economy Rate (Econ): The average number of runs conceded per over. (Econ = Runs/overs bowled).

In popular culture

Cricket has had a broad impact on popular culture, both in the Commonwealth of Nations and elsewhere. Cricket has had an influence on the lexicon of these nations, especially the English language, with such phrases as "that's not cricket" (unfair), "had a good innings", "sticky wicket", and "bowled over". There have been many cricket films. The term "Bradmanesque" from Don Bradman's name has become a generic term for outstanding excellence, both within cricket and in the wider world.[44] The amateur game has also been spread further afield by expatriates from the Test-playing nations. In the late 19th century, a former cricket player, English-born Henry Chadwick of Brooklyn, New York, was responsible for the "development of the box score, tabular standings, the annual baseball guide, the batting average, and most of the common statistics and tables used to describe baseball".[45] The statistical record is so central to the game's "historical essence" that Chadwick came to be known as Father Baseball.[45]
C.L.R. James's Beyond a Boundary is a popular book about the sport.

ICC ODI Championship

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ICC ODI Championship
ICCranking logo.png
ICC ODI Championship logo
Administrator International Cricket Council
Format One Day International
First tournament 2002
Last tournament ongoing
Tournament format national (ongoing points
accumulation through
all matches played)
Number of teams 13
29 Associate members
Current champion  Australia (130 points)
Most successful Flag of Australia.svg Australia (100 months)
The ICC ODI Championship is an international One Day International cricket competition run by the International Cricket Council. The competition is notional in that it is simply a ranking scheme overlaid on the regular ODI match schedule. After every ODI match, the two teams involved receive points based on a mathematical formula. The total of each team's points total is divided by the total number of matches to give a rating, and all teams are ranked on a table in order of rating.
By analogy to cricket batting averages, the points for winning an ODI match are always greater than the team's rating, increasing the rating, and the points for losing an ODI match are always less than the rating, reducing the rating. A drawn match between higher and lower rated teams will benefits the lower-rated team at the expense of the higher-rated team. An "average" team that wins as often as it loses while playing a mix of stronger and weaker teams should have a rating of 100.
As of 6 February 2012, Australia lead the ICC ODI Championship with a rating of 131, while the lowest rated team, Kenya, has a rating of 0.



[edit] Qualification

The championship consists of two separate ranking tables. The ten ICC Full Members that play Test cricket are automatically listed on the main table. The six Associate Members with One Day International status are listed on a secondary table, but are eligible for promotion to the main table by meeting one of the following criteria:[1]
  • two wins in ODIs against Full Members
  • one win in an ODI against a Full Member and also have won more than 60% of qualifying matches versus other Associates
Ireland qualified for the main table following their victories over Pakistan and Bangladesh in the 2007 World Cup,[2]. and the Netherlands qualified in 2010 by beating Bangladesh. Kenya are also listed on the main table as they previously had permanent ODI status.

[edit] Points

The calculations for the Table are performed as follows:
  • Each team scores points based on the results of their matches.
  • Each team's rating is equal to its total points scored divided by the total matches played. (Series are not significant in these calculations).
  • A match only counts if played in the last three years.
  • Matches played in the first year of the three-year limit count one-third; matches played in the second year count two-thirds; matches played in the last year count fully; essentially, recent matches are given higher weighting.
  • To determine a team's rating after a particular match:
    • Determine the match result (win, loss, or tie)
    • Calculate the match points scored:
      • If the gap between the ratings of the two teams at the commencement of the match is fewer than 40 points, then:
        • The winner scores 50 points more than the opponent's rating
        • The loser scores 50 points fewer than the opponent's rating
        • Each team in a tie scores the opponent's rating
      • If the gap between the ratings of the two teams at the commencement of the match is more than or equal to 40 points, then :
        • The winner, if it is the stronger team, scores 10 points more than its own rating
        • The winner, if it is the weaker team, scores 90 points more than its own rating
        • The loser, if it is the stronger team, scores 90 points fewer than its own rating
        • The loser, if it is the weaker team, scores 10 points fewer than its own rating
        • The stronger team in a tie scores 40 points fewer than its own rating
        • The weaker team in a tie scores 40 points more than its own rating
    • Add the match points scored to the points already scored (in previous matches as reflected by the Table) and determine the new rating. However, matches(and the points) which do not lie in last three year range will have to be removed.
  • Points earned by teams depend on the opponents ratings, therefore this system needed to assign base ratings to teams when it started.

[edit] Ranking table

Rank Team Matches Points Rating
1  Australia 38 4,913 129
2  India 50 5,821 116
3  South Africa 27 3,137 116
4  Sri Lanka 43 4,847 113
5  England 39 4,333 111
6  Pakistan 41 4,250 104
7  New Zealand 28 2,466 88
8  West Indies 27 2,146 79
9  Bangladesh 32 1,995 62
10  Zimbabwe 33 1,511 46
11  Ireland 14 504 36
12  Netherlands 9 137 15
13  Kenya 9 74 8
Reference: ICC Rankings, 14 February 2012

[edit] Associate rankings

Joel Olweny, Captain of the Uganda Cricket team
In late 2005, the International Cricket Council ranked the top non-Test nations from 11-30 to complement the Test nations' rankings in the ICC ODI Championship. The ICC used the results from the 2005 ICC Trophy and WCQS Division 2 competition (i.e. the primary qualification mechanisms for the 2007 Cricket World Cup) to rank the nations.
These rankings were used to seed the initial stage of the global World Cricket League. Teams ranked 11-16 were placed into Division 1; teams 17-20 were placed into Division 2; teams 21-24 were placed into Division 3; the remaining teams were placed into the upper divisions of their respective regional qualifiers.
As of 19 April 2009 the top six associates/affiliates gained one day status. Kenya and Ireland have both qualified to appear on the main rating table, Kenya from its existing status and Ireland for its two victories in the 2007 World Cup. Following their victory over Bangladesh in July 2010, the Netherlands joined the main table. Afghanistan, Canada and Scotland remain on the secondary table. In May 2009, the ICC added a rankings table for all associate and affiliate members. This contained both global and regional placings.
Associate rankings as at 28 September 2011 according to ICC:[3]
Rank Nation Regional Rank
14  Afghanistan Asia No. 1 Associate/Affiliate member
15  Scotland Europe 3
16  Canada Americas No.1 Associate/Affiliate member
17  United Arab Emirates Asia 2
18  Namibia Africa 2
19  Papua New Guinea East Asia - Pacific No.1 Associate/Affiliate Member
20  Hong Kong Asia 3
21  Uganda Africa 3
22  Bermuda Americas 2
23  Oman Asia 4
24  Italy Europe 4
25  Denmark Europe 5
26  United States Americas 3
27  Nepal Asia 5
28  Tanzania Africa 4
29  Cayman Islands Americas 4
30  Argentina Americas 5
31  Bahrain Asia 6
32  Singapore Asia 7
33  Guernsey Europe 6
34  Malaysia Asia 8
35  Kuwait Asia 9
36  Jersey Europe 7
37  Nigeria Africa 5
38  Fiji EAP 2
39  Germany Europe 8
40  Botswana Africa 6
41  Norway Europe 9
42  Japan EAP 3
43  Vanuatu EAP 4

[edit] Historical ICC ODI Champions

The ICC provides ratings for the end of each month back to October 2002. This table lists the teams that have successively held the highest rating since that date, by whole month periods.
Team Start End Total Months Cumulative Weeks Highest Rating
 Australia October 2002 January 2007 52 52 140
 South Africa February 2007 February 2007 1 1 128
 Australia March 2007 February 2008 12 64 130
 South Africa March 2008 May 2008 3 4 127
 Australia June 2008 December 2008 7 71 131
 South Africa January 2009 August 2009 8 12 127
 Australia September 2009 present 30 101 134
Reference: ICC Rankings
The ICC recently applied it's current rating system to results since 1981. The table only begins from 1981 as prior to this date, there is not enough data available due to the infrequency of matches and the small number of competing teams in the earlier periods.
The teams that have successively held the highest rating since January 1981 till September 2002, by whole month periods, are:
Team Start End Total Months
 England January 1981 February 1981 2
 West Indies June 1981 November 1981 6
 England December 1981 December 1981 1
 West Indies January 1982 May 1987 65
 England August 1987 March 1988 8
 West Indies April 1988 May 1988 2
 England August 1988 May 1989 10
 West Indies August 1989 December 1989 5
 Australia January 1990 March 1990 3
 West Indies April 1990 April 1990 1
 Australia May 1990 May 1990 1
 West Indies July 1990 July 1990 1
 Australia August 1990 November 1990 4
 Pakistan December 1990 January 1991 2
 Australia February 1991 May 1991 4
 Pakistan August 1991 August 1991 1
 Australia October 1991 May 1992 8
 England August 1992 March 1993 8
 West Indies April 1993 April 1993 1
 Australia May 1993 July 1993 3
 West Indies August 1993 November 1994 16
 India December 1994 March 1995 4
 West Indies April 1995 May 1995 2
 India August 1995 October 1995 3
 England November 1995 December 1995 2
 Australia January 1996 April 1996 4
 South Africa May 1996 February 2000 46
 Australia March 2000 January 2002 23
 South Africa February 2002 February 2002 1
 Australia March 2002 September 2002 7
Reference: ICC Historical Rankings
The summary of teams that have held the highest rating since 1981 till present by whole month periods, are:
Team Total Months Highest Rating
 Australia 158 140
 West Indies 99 141
 South Africa 59 134
 England 31 135
 India 7 120
 Pakistan 3 131
Reference: ICC Historical Rankings

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ ICC - Associate and Affiliate Rankings
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "ICC GLOBAL RANKINGS (as at 28 September 2011)". ICC. Retrieved 2011-09-28.

[edit] External links

ICC Player Rankings

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Jump to: navigation, search

ICC Rankings logo
The ICC Player Rankings are a widely followed system of rankings for international cricketers based on their recent performances. The current sponsor is Reliance Mobile who have signed a deal with the ICC that will last until 2015.[1]
The ratings were developed at the suggestion of Ted Dexter in 1987. The intention was to produce a better indication of players' current standing in the sport than is provided by comparing their averages. Career averages are based on a player's entire career and do not make any allowance for match conditions or the strength of the opposition, whereas the ratings are biased towards recent form and account for match conditions and the quality of the opponent using statistical measures.
Initially the rankings were for Test cricket only, but separate One Day International rankings were introduced in 1998. Both sets of rankings have now been calculated back to the start of those forms of the game.



[edit] Test Cricket Rankings

[edit] Year end top ranked players in Test Cricket

Date Top Batsman Country Top Bowler Country
31 December 2011 Kumar Sangakkara  Sri Lanka Dale Steyn  South Africa
31 December 2010 MS Dhoni  India Dale Steyn  South Africa
31 December 2009 Gautam Gambhir  India Dale Steyn  South Africa
31 December 2008 MS Dhoni  India Muttiah Muralitharan  Sri Lanka
31 December 2007 Kumar Sangakkara  Sri Lanka Muttiah Muralitharan  Sri Lanka
31 December 2006 Ricky Ponting  Australia Muttiah Muralitharan  Sri Lanka
31 December 2005 Ricky Ponting  Australia Shane Warne  Australia
31 December 2004 Rahul Dravid  India Glenn McGrath  Australia
31 December 2003 Ricky Ponting  Australia Muttiah Muralitharan  Sri Lanka
31 December 2002 Matthew Hayden  Australia Glenn McGrath  Australia
31 December 2001 Brian Lara  West Indies Glenn McGrath  Australia
31 December 2000 Sachin Tendulkar  India Shaun Pollock  South Africa

[edit] Batsmen with a peak rating of 900 points or more

Rank Name Played for Highest rating
1 Sir Donald Bradman  Australia 961
2 Sir Len Hutton  England 945
3 Sir Jack Hobbs  England 942
3 Ricky Ponting  Australia 942
5 Sir Vivian Richards  West Indies 938
5 Kumar Sangakkara  Sri Lanka 938
5 Sir Garry Sobers  West Indies 938
5 Sir Clyde Walcott  West Indies 938
9 Matthew Hayden  Australia 935
9 Jacques Kallis  South Africa 935
11 Mohammad Yousuf  Pakistan 933
12 Sir Everton Weekes  West Indies 927
12 Graeme Pollock  South Africa 927
14 Dudley Nourse  South Africa 922
14 Doug Walters  Australia 922
16 Neil Harvey  Australia 921
16 Mike Hussey  Australia 921
18 Denis Compton  England 917
19 Sunil Gavaskar  India 916
20 George Headley  West Indies 915
21 Ken Barrington  England 914
22 Brian Lara  West Indies 911
23 Kevin Pietersen  England 909
24 Shivnarine Chanderpaul  West Indies 901

[edit] Bowlers with a peak rating of 900 points or more

Rank Name Played for Highest rating
1 Sid Barnes  England 932
2 George Lohmann  England 931
3 Imran Khan  Pakistan 922
4 Muttiah Muralitharan  Sri Lanka 920
5 Glenn McGrath  Australia 914
6 Curtly Ambrose  West Indies 912
6 Tony Lock  England 912
8 Sir Ian Botham  England 911
9 Malcolm Marshall  West Indies 910
10 Waqar Younis  Pakistan 909
10 Sir Richard Hadlee  New Zealand 909
10 Shaun Pollock  South Africa 909
13 Alan Davidson  Australia 908
14 Derek Underwood  England 907
15 Shane Warne  Australia 905
16 Sir Alec Bedser  England 903
17 Dale Steyn  South Africa 902
18 Clarrie Grimmett  Australia 901
19 Bill O'Reilly  Australia 901
20 Bill Johnston  Australia 900

[edit] One-Day International (ODI) Cricket Rankings

[edit] Year end top ranked players in ODI Cricket

Date , Top Batsman Country Top Bowler Country
31 December 2011 Hashim Amla  South Africa Saeed Ajmal  Pakistan
31 December 2010 Hashim Amla  South Africa Daniel Vettori  New Zealand
31 December 2009 M.S. Dhoni  India Daniel Vettori  New Zealand
31 December 2008 Michael Hussey  Australia Nathan Bracken  Australia
31 December 2007 Ricky Ponting  Australia Shaun Pollock  South Africa
31 December 2006 Michael Hussey  Australia Shaun Pollock  South Africa
31 December 2005 Ricky Ponting  Australia Glenn McGrath  Australia
31 December 2004 Adam Gilchrist  Australia Shaun Pollock  South Africa
31 December 2003 Sachin Tendulkar  India Shaun Pollock  South Africa
31 December 2002 Matthew Hayden  Australia Shaun Pollock  South Africa
31 December 2001 Michael Bevan  Australia Muttiah Muralitharan  Sri Lanka
31 December 2000 Michael Bevan  Australia Muttiah Muralitharan  Sri Lanka

[edit] All time highest ODI rankings

The following tables list the top 10 player rankings in the history of ODI cricket. The tables are complete to 5 January 2008.

[edit] Top 10 Rankings: Batting

Rank Name Played for Highest rating Year Achieved
1 Sir Vivian Richards  West Indies 935 1985
2 Zaheer Abbas  Pakistan 931 1983
3 Greg Chappell  Australia 921 1981
4 David Gower  England 919 1983
5 Dean Jones  Australia 918 1991
6 Javed Miandad  Pakistan 910 1987
7 Brian Lara  West Indies 908 1993
8 Desmond Haynes  West Indies 900 1985
8 Gary Kirsten  South Africa 900 1996
10 Allan Lamb  England 897 1985

[edit] Top 10 Rankings: Bowling

Rank Name Played for Highest rating Year Achieved
1 Joel Garner  West Indies 940 1985
2 Sir Richard Hadlee  New Zealand 923 1983
3 Shaun Pollock  South Africa 920 2006
4 Muttiah Muralitharan  Sri Lanka 913 2002
5 Glenn McGrath  Australia 903 2002
6 Ewen Chatfield  New Zealand 892 1984
7 Malcolm Marshall  West Indies 891 1985
7 Dennis Lillee  Australia 891 1982
9 Curtly Ambrose  West Indies 877 1991
10 Michael Holding  West Indies 875 1985

[edit] Twenty20 International (T20I) Cricket Rankings

[edit] All time highest T20I rankings

[edit] Top 10 Rankings: Batting

Rank Name Played for Highest rating Year Achieved
1 Eoin Morgan  England 832 2011

[edit] Top 10 Rankings: Bowling

Rank Name Played for Highest rating Year Achieved
1 Ajantha Mendis  Sri Lanka 748 2011

[edit] See also

ICC Test Championship

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ICC Test Championship
ICCranking logo.png
ICC Test Championship logo
Administrator International Cricket Council
Format Test cricket
First tournament 2003
Last tournament ongoing
Tournament format notional (ongoing points
accumulation through all matches played)
Number of teams 10
Current champion  England (118 points)
Most successful Flag of Australia.svg Australia (74 months)
The ICC Test Championship is an international competition run by the International Cricket Council in the sport of cricket for the 10 teams that play Test cricket. The competition is notional in the sense that it is simply a ranking scheme overlaid on all international matches that are otherwise played as part of regular Test cricket scheduling with no consideration of home or away status.
In essence, after every Test series, the two teams involved receive points based on a mathematical formula. The total of each team's points total is divided by the total number of matches to give a 'rating', and the Test-playing teams are ranked by order of rating (this can be shown in a table).
The points for winning a Test match or series are greater than the team's rating, increasing the rating, and the points for losing the match or series are always less than the rating, reducing the rating. A drawn match between higher and lower rated teams will benefit the lower-rated team at the expense of the higher-rated team. An 'average' team that wins as often as it loses while playing a mix of stronger and weaker teams should have a rating of 100.
The International Cricket Council awards a trophy, the ICC Test Championship mace, to the team holding the highest rating. The mace is transferred whenever a new team moves to the top of the rating list.[1]
As of 06 February 2012, England lead the ICC Test Championship with a rating of 118, while the lowest rated team, Bangladesh, has a rating of 8.



[edit] Test championship calculations

The calculations for the table are performed as follows:
  • Each team scores points based on the results of their matches.
  • Each team's rating is equal to its total points scored divided by the total matches and series played. (A series must include at least two Tests).
  • A series only counts if played in the last three years.
  • Series played in the first two years of the three-year limit count half; essentially, recent matches are given more weight.
  • To determine a team's rating after a particular series:
    • Find the series result
      • Award 1 point to a team for each win
      • Award 1/2 point to a team for each draw
      • Award 1 bonus point to the team winning the series
      • Award 1/2 bonus point to each team if the series is drawn
    • Convert the series result to actual ratings points
      • If the gap between the ratings of the two teams at the commencement of the series is less than 40 points, then the ratings points for each team equals:
        • (The team's own series result) multiplied by (50 points MORE than the opponent's rating) PLUS
        • (The opponent's series result) multiplied by (50 points LESS than the opponent's rating)
      • If the gap between the ratings of the two teams at the commencement of the series is more than or equal to 40 points, then the ratings points for the stronger team equals:
        • (The team's own series result) multiplied by (10 points MORE than the team's own rating) PLUS
        • (The opponent's series result) multiplied by (90 points LESS than the team's own rating)
      • If the gap between the ratings of the two teams at the commencement of the series is more than or equal to 40 points, then the ratings points for the weaker team equals:
        • (The team's own series result) multiplied by (90 points MORE than the team's own rating) PLUS
        • (The opponent's series result) multiplied by (10 points LESS than the team's own rating)
    • Add the ratings points scored by the team to the total ratings points already scored (in previous matches, as reflected by the Table)
    • Update the number of matches played by the team through adding one more than the number of games in the series (a two Test match series will result in the match count getting incremented by three)
    • Divide the new rating points with the updated number of matches to get the final rating.

[edit] Current rankings

[edit] Main Test table

Rank Team Matches Points Rating
1  England 44 5,124 116
2  South Africa 32 3,709 116
3  India 46 5,103 111
4  Australia 42 4,655 111
5  Pakistan 35 3,781 108
6  Sri Lanka 38 3,780 99
7  West Indies 30 2,604 87
8  New Zealand 28 2,366 85
9  Bangladesh 18 135 8
Reference: ICC Rankings, 7 April 2012
  • Note: Zimbabwe is currently unranked, since it has played insufficient matches. It has 167 points and a rating of 22.

[edit] Historical rankings

World rankings for the top eight teams from 2003 to June 2011
The ICC provides ratings for the end of each month back to June 2003. The teams that have successively held the highest rating since that date, by whole month periods, are:
Team Start End Total Months Highest Rating
 Australia June 2003 July 2009 74 143
 South Africa August 2009 November 2009 4 122
 India December 2009 July 2011 20 130
 England August 2011 present 7 125
Reference: ICC Rankings
Since the ICC officially began ranking teams in 2003, Australia has dominated as it had done so in Test cricket since around 1995. However from 2009, several teams (Australia, South Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and England) have competed for the top positions.
The ICC recently applied its current rating system to results since 1952 providing ratings for the end of each month back to 1952 further indicating Australia's historical dominance in Test Cricket with the most consecutive months ranked first (95) from September 2001 to July 2009, the highest number of months ranked first (317) and the highest rating (143). The table only begins from 1952 as prior to this date, there is not enough data available due to the infrequency of matches and the small number of competing teams in the earlier periods.
The teams that have successively held the highest rating since January 1952 till May 2003, by whole month periods, are:
Team Start End Total Months
 Australia January 1952 May 1955 41
 England June 1955 February 1958 33
 Australia March 1958 July 1958 5
 England August 1958 December 1958 5
 Australia January 1959 December 1963 60
 West Indies January 1964 December 1968 60
 South Africa January 1969 December 1969 12
 England January 1970 January 1973 37
 Australia February 1973 March 1973 2
 India April 1973 June 1974 15
 Australia July 1974 January 1978 43
 West Indies February 1978 January 1979 12
 England February 1979 August 1980 19
 India September 1980 February 1981 6
 West Indies March 1981 July 1988 89
 Pakistan August 1988 September 1988 2
 West Indies October 1988 January 1991 28
 Australia February 1991 April 1991 3
 West Indies May 1991 July 1992 15
 Australia August 1992 January 1993 6
 West Indies February 1993 August 1995 31
 India September 1995 November 1995 3
 Australia December 1995 July 1999 44
 South Africa August 1999 December 1999 5
 Australia January 2000 February 2000 2
 South Africa March 2000 March 2000 1
 Australia April 2000 July 2001 16
 South Africa August 2001 August 2001 1
 Australia September 2001 May 2003 21
Reference: ICC Historical Rankings

The summary of teams that have held the highest rating since 1952 till present by whole month periods, are:
Team Total Months Highest Rating
 Australia 316 143
 West Indies 234 135
 England 101 125
 India 44 130
 South Africa 23 122
 Pakistan 2 110
Reference: ICC Historical Rankings

 Tournament format

For the past few years there has been speculation that the ICC would introduce a Test Championship tournament, similar to that of the World Cup, Champions Trophy, World Twenty20 and ICC Intercontinental Cup.
ICC chief executive Haroon Lorgat has proposed a quadrennial tournament with the four best-performing nations to meet in semi-finals and a final, in a bid to boost flagging interest in the longest form of the sport. The first tournament could replace the 2013 Champions Trophy in England.[2][3] However, this now seems unlikely as the ICC has stated that it does not have the support of its broadcast partner - ESPN STAR Sports. This is mainly because the broadcast of the Champions Trophy would generate much more revenue than a Test Championship. The ICC has said the inaugural ICC Test Championship tournament is likely to be delayed to 2017.

Glossary of cricket terms

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of cricket terms)
Jump to: navigation, search
Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven. It is known for its rich terminology.[1][2][3] Some terms are often thought to be arcane and humorous by those not familiar with the game.[4]
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are also defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding (cricket).

Top   0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

[edit] A

Young Cricketer. "Yes, I cocked one off the splice in the gully and the blighter gathered it."
Father. "Yes, but how did you get out? Were you caught, stumped or bowled, or what?"
Cartoon from Punch, 21 July 1920.
Across the line 
A batsman plays across the line when he moves his bat in a direction lateral to the direction of the incoming ball.
Agricultural shot 
this is a swing across the line of the ball (resembling a scything motion) played without much technique. Often one that results in a chunk of the pitch being dug up by the bat. A type of a slog.[5]
All out 
when an innings is ended due to ten of the eleven batsmen on the batting side being either dismissed or unable to bat because of injury or illness.[citation needed]
a player adept at both batting and bowling.[6] In the modern era, this term can also refer to a wicket-keeper adept at batting.
a top-order batsman capable of batting for a long duration throughout the innings. Usually batsmen playing at numbers 3 or 4 play such a role, especially if there is a batting collapse. An anchor plays defensively, and is often the top scorer in the innings.[7]
the act of a bowler or fielder shouting at the umpire to ask if his last ball took the batsman's wicket. Usually phrased in the form of howzat (how-is-that?). Common variations include 'Howzee?' (how is he?), or simply turning to the umpire and shouting.[6] The batsman will not be given out without an appeal, even if the criteria for a dismissal have otherwise been met.
The motion of the bowler prior to bowling the ball. It is also known as the run-up. Also the ground a bowler runs on during his run up. Eg: "Play was delayed because the bowler's approaches were slippery."[citation needed]
Arm ball 
a deceptive delivery bowled by an off spin bowler that is not spun, so, unlike the off break, it travels straight on (with the bowler's arm). A particularly good bowler's arm ball might also swing away from the batsman in the air (or in to him when delivered by a left-armer).[1]
Around the wicket or round the wicket
a right-handed bowler passing to the right of the stumps during his bowling action, and vice-versa for left-handed bowlers.[8]
Ashes, the 
the perpetual prize in England v Australia Test match series. The Ashes originated as a result of a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, The Sporting Times, in 1882 after a match at The Oval in which Australia beat England on an English ground for the first time. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, and the body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia.[1] The English media dubbed the next English tour to Australia (1882–83) as the quest to regain The Ashes. During that tour a small terracotta urn was presented to England captain Ivo Bligh by a group of Melbourne women. The contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of an item of cricket equipment, a bail.
Asking rate 
the run rate at which the team batting 2nd needs to score to catch the opponents score in a limited overs game.[1]
Attacking field 
A fielding configuration in which more fielders are close in to the pitch so as to take catches and dismiss batsmen more readily, at the risk of letting more runs get scored should the ball get past them.
Attacking shot 
A shot of aggression or strength designed to score runs.[9]
A bowler's bowling average is defined as the total number of runs conceded by the bowler (including wides and no-balls) divided by the number of wickets taken by the bowler. A batsman's batting average is defined as the total number of runs scored by the batsman divided by the number of times he has been dismissed.[9]
Away swing 
see out swing[9]

[edit] B

Back foot 
in a batsman's stance the back foot is the foot that is closest to the stumps. A bowler's front foot is the last foot to contact the ground before the ball is released. The other foot is the back foot. Unless the bowler is bowling off the wrong foot the bowling foot is the back foot.[9]
Back foot contact 
is the position of the bowler at the moment when his back foot lands on the ground just prior to delivering the ball.[citation needed]
Back foot shot 
a shot played with the batsman's weight on his back foot (i.e. the foot furthest from the bowler).[6]
Back spin 
(also under-spin) a delivery which has a rotation backwards so that after pitching it immediately slows down, or bounces lower and skids on to the batsman.[6]
Backing up 
  1. The non-striking batsman leaving his crease during the delivery in order to shorten the distance to complete one run. A batsman "backing up" too far runs the risk of being run out, either by a fielder in a conventional run out, or – in a "Mankad" – by the bowler themself.[9]
  2. after a fielder chases the ball, another fielder placed at a further distance also moves into position so that if the fielder mis-fields the ball, the damage done is minimal. Also done to support a fielder receiving a throw from the outfield in case the throw is errant or not caught.[9]
the lifting of the bat in preparation to hit the ball.[9]
one of the two small pieces of wood that lie on top of the stumps to form the wicket.[2]
the round object which the batsman attempts to strike with the bat. Also a delivery.[1]
Bang (It) In 
to bowl a delivery on a shorter length with additional speed and force. The bowler is said to be "bending his back" when banging it in.
when a batsmen runs his batting partner out, generally with a poor call
the wooden implement with which the batsman attempts to strike the ball.[9]
a fielder who is in position close to the batsman to catch the ball if it hits the bat, then the pad, and rises to a catchable height. Also a defence against being given out lbw, that the ball may have hit the bat first, however indiscernible.[1]
Batsman (also, and particularly in women's cricket, bat or batter)
A player on the batting side, or a player whose speciality is batting.[1] More specifically, batsman may refer to one of the two members of the batting side who are currently at the crease: either the batsman who is on strike, or the batsman who is at the non-striker's end.
the act and skill of defending one's wicket and scoring runs.[1]
Batting average 
the average number of runs scored per innings by a batsman, calculated by dividing the batsman's total runs scored during those innings in question by the number of times the batsman was out. Compare innings average.[9]
Batting collapse 
is used to describe the situation where a number of batsmen are dismissed in rapid succession for very few runs. A middle order batting collapse can be particularly disastrous as it leaves only the bowlers to bat.
Batting end 
the end of the pitch at which the striker stands.[citation needed]
Batting order 
the order in which the batsmen bat, from the openers, through the top order and middle order to the lower order.[9]
an abbreviation for the best bowling figures in an innings throughout the entire career of the bowler. It is defined as, firstly, the greatest number of wickets taken, and secondly the fewest runs conceded for that number of wickets. (Thus, a performance of 7 for 102 is considered better than one of 6 for 19.)[citation needed]
an abbreviation for the best bowling figures in a match throughout the entire career of the bowler. It is defined as, firstly, the greatest number of wickets taken, and secondly the fewest runs conceded for that number of wickets in a complete match, as opposed to BBI which is the equivalent statistic for an innings.
Beach cricket 
an informal form of the game, obviously cricket played on beaches, particularly in Australia, Sri Lanka and cricket-playing Caribbean countries.[10]
a delivery that reaches the batsman at around head height without bouncing. Due to the risk of injury to the batsman, a beamer is an illegal delivery, punishable by a no ball being called.[1] If an individual bowler bowls more than two beamers in an innings, they can be barred from bowling for the remainder of that innings.
Beat the bat 
when a batsman narrowly avoids touching the ball with the edge of his bat, through good fortune rather than skill. Considered a moral victory for the bowler. The batsman is said to have been beaten. In some cases, this may be expanded to "beaten all ends up".[11]
a diagram showing where a number of balls, usually from a particular bowler, have passed the batsman.[12] Compare pitch map.
a belter of a pitch is a pitch offering advantage to the batsman.[1]
Bend the back 
of a pace bowler, to put in extra effort to extract extra speed or bounce.[1]
the turn a spin bowler is able to produce on a pitch.[3]
  1. A defensive shot;[11]
  2. To play a defensive shot.[3]
  3. The area of the field containing the pitch and any other pitches (being prepared for other games)
Block hole 
the area between where the batsman rests his bat to receive a delivery and his toes. It is the target area for a yorker.[11]
a tactic (now suppressed by law changes restricting fielders on the leg side) involving bowling directly at the batsman's body, particularly with close fielders packed on the leg side. The term "Bodyline" is usually used to describe the contentious 1932–33 Ashes Tour. The tactic is often called "fast leg theory" in other contexts.[1]
Boot Hill 
Another term for short leg, the least liked and most dangerous of the fielding positions.
Bosie or Bosey 
See Googly[1]
Bottom hand 
The hand of the batsman that is closest to the blade of the bat. Shots played with the bottom hand often are hit in the air and described as having a lot of bottom hand.[11]
a fast short pitched delivery that rises up near the batsman's head.[1][3]
  1. the perimeter of the ground;[11]
  2. four runs. Also used to mention a four and a six collectively;[11]
  3. the rope that demarcates the perimeter of the ground.[2]
a mode of a batsman's dismissal. Occurs when a delivery hits the stumps and removes the bails.[13] Also the past tense of the act of bowling.
Bowled out 
of the batting side, to have lost ten out of its eleven batsmen (thus having no more legal batting partnerships and being all out). (In this instance it has nothing to do with the particular dismissal bowled.)[citation needed]

Bowler Darren Gough winds up to deliver a ball
the player on the fielding side who bowls to the batsman.[citation needed]
the act of delivering the cricket ball to the batsman.[11]
Bowling action 
the set of movements that result in the bowler releasing the ball in the general direction of the wicket.[citation needed]
a method of determining the result in a Twenty 20 International match that has been tied. Five players from each team bowl at a full set of stumps, and the team with the most hits wins. If the number of hits is equal after both team's turns, further sudden death turns are taken. The concept is analogous to the penalty shootout used in other sports.[14]
Bowling analysis 
(also called bowling figures) a shorthand statistical notation summarising a bowler's performance.[11]
Bowling average 
the average number of runs scored off a bowler for each wicket he has taken. i.e. total runs conceded divided by number of wickets taken.[citation needed]
Bowling end 
the end of the pitch from where the bowler bowls.[citation needed]
Bowling foot 
the foot on the same side of the body that a bowler holds the ball. For a right handed bowler the bowling foot is the right foot.[citation needed]

Cricket box
a protective item shaped like a half-shell and inserted into the front pouch of a jockstrap worn underneath a player's (particularly a batsman's) trousers to protect his or her genitalia from the hard cricket ball. Also known as an 'abdominal protector', 'Hector protector', 'ball box', 'protector' or 'cup'.[11]
two wickets taken off two consecutive deliveries.
a suffix used to describe the ball changing direction after pitching caused by the bowler'sspin or cut. For example, a leg spinner will deliver leg breaks (moving from leg to off).[6]
Breaking the wicket 
the act of dislodging the bails from the stumps.[citation needed]
Buffet bowling 
bowling of a very poor quality, such that the batsman is able to "come and help himself" to runs, also Cafeteria Bowling.[citation needed]
Bump ball 
a delivery that bounces very close to the batsman's foot, after he has played a shot, such that it appears to have come directly from the bat without ground contact. The result is often a crowd catch.[1]
old-fashioned name for a bouncer.[1]
see rabbit.[1]
A pitch on which spin bowlers can turn the ball prodigiously. From the rhyming slang: 'Bunsen Burner' meaning 'Turner'.[1]
extras scored in the same way as normal runs when the ball does not make contact with any part of the batsman (bat, protective gear, body parts).[1]

[edit] C

  1. The act of a fieldsman in announcing to other fieldsmen that he is in a position to take a catch, usually by shouting the word "mine". This is considered good practice, as it prevents two fieldsmen colliding with one another in an attempt to take the same catch. See mine.
  2. The act of a batsman in announcing to his batting partner whether or not to take a run. According to accepted practice, the call is taken by the batting partner who has the better view of the ball: if the stroke is forward of the crease, the call should be made by the batsman at the striker's end, if it is backward of the crease, the call should be made by the batsman at the non-striker's end. (Sometimes, however, it is agreed that the more experienced batsman will always have the call.) The usual and preferable calls are only three in number: yes (we will take a run), no (we will not take a run), or wait (we should not take a run until we see if the ball is intercepted by a fieldsman). To avoid any confusion as to which batsman has the call, one or other of them may say your call. Rigorous adherence to these practices is essential to avoid a run out.
Occurs when an umpire "calls" no-ball against a bowler.
A brief but quick-scoring innings e.g. "He played a little cameo of an innings".[15]
awarded by countries for each appearance at Test level. At county level, just one is given and is awarded not on a player's first appearance, but at a later stage when it is felt he has "proved himself" as a member of the team; some players never receive one. Worcestershire have now abolished this system and award "colours" to each player on his debut.[citation needed]
Captain's Innings/Captain's Knock 
a high-scoring individual innings by the captain of the batting team considered to have changed the course of a match.[16]
Carrom Ball 
a style of bowling delivery used in cricket, named because the ball is released by flicking the ball between the thumb and a bent middle finger in order to impart spin
if a hit ball is caught by a fielder on the fly, it is said to have carried. If it bounces just short of the fielder, it is said not to have carried.[17] The carry of a delivery to the wicket keeper is also noted as a measure of the quality of the pitch.
Carry the bat 
an opener who is not out at the end of a completed innings is said to have carried his bat.[1]
Cart-wheeling Stump 
when a ball hits a stump with enough force to cause it to make vertical revolutions before landing.
out bowled often by a full length ball or a Yorker.
to dismiss a batsman by a fielder catching the ball after the batsman has hit it with his bat but before it hits the ground.[17]
Caught and bowled 
when a player is dismissed by a catch taken by the bowler. The term originates from the way dismissals are recorded on a scorecard; the alternative "bowled and caught", which would describe the sequence of events in the chronological order, is almost never used.
Caught behind
refers to a catch by the wicket-keeper.
refers to a player who has scored more than 100 runs (a century) in an innings.
an individual score of at least 100 runs, a significant landmark for a batsman. Sometimes used ironically to describe a bowler conceding over 100 runs in an innings.[17]
when the batsman uses his feet and comes out of his batting crease towards the bowler, trying to hit the ball. Also known as giving the bowler the charge,[1] or stepping down the wicket.
The (red) cricket ball, particularly the new ball.[citation needed] Also the red marks left on a cricket bat by the ball.
Chest on (also front on) 
  1. A chest on bowler has chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.[1]
  2. A batsman is said to be chest on if his hips and shoulders face the bowler.[1]
Chin music 
The use of a series of bouncers from pace bowlers to intimidate a batsman. Historically, it has been used as a tactic particularly against sub-continental teams because of their inexperience of bouncers. Term taken from baseball.[1]
a left-handed bowler bowling wrist spin (left arm unorthodox). For a right-handed batsman, the ball will move from the off side to the leg side (left to right on the TV screen). Named after Ellis "Puss" Achong, a West Indian left-arm wrist-spin bowler of Chinese descent.[3]
Chinese cut (also French cut, Harrow Drive, Staffordshire cut or Surrey cut
an inside edge which misses hitting the stumps by a few centimeters.[17]
to throw the ball instead of bowling it (i.e. by straightening the elbow during the delivery); also chucker: a bowler who chucks; and chucking: such an illegal bowling action. All are considered offensive terms as they imply cheating.[1]
(The) Circle 
a painted circle (or ellipse), centred in the middle of the pitch, of radius 30 yard (27 m) marked on the field. The circle separates the infield from the outfield, used in policing the fielding regulations in certain one-day versions of the game. The exact nature of the restrictions vary depending on the type of game: see limited overs cricket, Twenty20 and powerplay (cricket).
Clean bowled 
bowled, without the ball first hitting the bat or pad.[2]
Close infield 
the area enclosed by a painted dotted circle of 15 yard (13.7 m) radius measured from the wicket on each end of the pitch. Used only in ODI matches.[citation needed]
alternative term for back foot contact.[citation needed]
the loss of several wickets in a short space of time.[citation needed]
Come to the crease 
A phrase used to indicate a batsman walking onto the playing arena and arriving at the cricket pitch in the middle of the ground to begin batting.
Contrived circumstances
Unusual tactics which are intended to achieve a legitimate outcome, but result in wild statistical abnormalities; for example, deliberately bowling extremely poorly to encourage a quick declaration. Wisden excludes records set in contrived circumstances from its official lists.[18]
Cordon (or slips cordon) 
all players fielding in the slips at any time are collectively referred to the slips cordon.
Corridor of uncertainty 
a good line. The corridor of uncertainty is a notional narrow area on and just outside a batsman's off stump. If a delivery is in the corridor, it is difficult for a batsman to decide whether to leave the ball, play defensively or play an attacking shot. The term was popularised by former England batsman, now commentator, Geoffrey Boycott.[1]
County cricket 
the highest level of domestic cricket in England and Wales.[19]
  1. A fielding position between point and mid-off.[19]
  2. The equipment used to protect the pitch from rain.[19]
Cow corner 
the area of the field (roughly) between deep mid-wicket and wide long-on. So called because few 'legitimate' shots are aimed to this part of the field, so fielders are rarely placed there – leading to the concept that cows could happily graze in that area.[1]
Cow shot 
a hard shot, usually in the air, across the line of a full-pitched ball, aiming to hit the ball over the boundary at cow corner, with very little regard to proper technique. Very powerful and a good way of hitting boundary sixes, but must be timed perfectly to avoid being bowled, or either skying the ball or getting a leading edge and so being caught. A type of slog.[1]
one of several lines on the pitch near the stumps (the "popping crease", the "return crease" and the "bowling crease") most often referring to the popping crease.[2]

A used cricket ball
Cricket ball 
a hard, solid ball of cork, wound string and polished leather, with a wide raised equatorial seam.[citation needed]
a person who plays cricket.[20]
Cross-bat shot 
a shot played with the bat parallel with the ground, such as a cut or a pull. Also known as a horizontal-bat shot.[1]
Crowd catch 
a fielder's stop which leads to a roar from the crowd because at first impression it is a dismissal, but which turns out to be not out (because of a no ball or a bump ball).[citation needed]
a shot played square on the off side to a short-pitched delivery wide of off stump. So called because the batsman makes a "cutting" motion as he plays the shot.[19]
a break delivery bowled by a fast or medium-pace bowler with similar action to a spin bowler, but at a faster pace. It is usually used in an effort to surprise the batsman, although some medium-pace bowlers use the cutter as their stock (main) delivery.[6]

[edit] D

Daisy cutter 
When a ball rolls along the pitch or bounces more than 2 times
Dead ball 
  1. the state of play in between deliveries, in which batsmen may not score runs or be given out.[1]
  2. called when the ball becomes lodged in the batsman's clothing or equipment.[19]
  3. called when the ball is (or is about to be) bowled when the batsman is not yet ready.[19]
  4. called when a bowler aborts his run up without making a delivery.[19]
  5. called when the batsmen attempt to run leg-byes after the ball has struck the batsman's body, but is deemed to have not offered a shot.[19]
Dead bat 
the bat when held with a light grip such that it gives when the ball strikes it, and the ball loses momentum and falls to the ground.
Death overs 
the final 10 overs in a one-day match, in which most bowlers are, usually, hit for lots of runs. Also known as Slog Overs. Bowlers who bowl during the death overs are said to "bowl at the death"
Death Rattle 
the sound a batsman hears when he is clean bowled.
Decision review system 
see Umpire Decision Review System.
the act of a captain voluntarily bringing his side's innings to a close, in the belief that their score is now great enough to prevent defeat. Occurs almost exclusively in timed forms of cricket where a draw is a possible result (such as first class cricket), in order that the side declaring have enough time to bowl the opposition out and therefore win.[1]
Declaration bowling 
a phrase used to describe deliberately poor bowling (Full tosses and Long hops) from the fielding team to allow the batsman to score runs quickly and encourage the opposing captain to declare.
Defensive field 
A fielding configuration in which fielders are spread around the field so as to more readily stop hit balls and reduce the number of runs (particularly boundaries) being scored by batsmen, at the cost of fewer opportunities to take catches and dismiss batsmen.
the act of bowling the ball.[6]
Devil's number (also Dreaded number)
a score of 87, regarded as unlucky in Australian cricket. According to Australian superstition, batsmen have a tendency to be dismissed for 87. The superstition is thought to originate from the fact that 87 is 13 runs short of a century. The English term Nelson similarly refers to a superstition concerning a number traditionally regarded as unlucky.
Diamond duck 
regional usage varies, but either a dismissal (usually run out) without facing a delivery,[21] or a dismissal (for zero) off the first ball of a team's innings (the less common term platinum duck is used interchangeably).
Dibbly Dobbly 
  1. a bowler of limited skill.
  2. a delivery that is easy to hit.[1]
A stroke where a batsman goes on one knee and hits a good length or slightly short of length ball straight over the wicket keeper's head usually to the boundary or over it. Displayed at the world stage by Sri Lankan batsman Tillakaratne Dilshan during the ICC World Twenty20 in June 2009 and named after him. Also a speciality of New Zealand Blackcaps wicket keeper batsman Brendon McCullum
a gentle shot.
a delivery bowled which curves into or away from the batsman before pitching.
to get one of the batsmen out so that he must cease batting.
Direct hit 
a throw from a fieldsman that directly strikes and puts down a wicket (without first being caught by a fieldsman standing at the stumps). Occurs when attempting a run out.
a very easy catch.[1]
Donkey Drop 
A ball with a very high trajectory prior to bouncing.[6]
a relatively new off spin delivery developed by Saqlain Mushtaq; the finger spin equivalent of the googly, in that it turns the "wrong way". From the Hindi or Urdu for second or other. Muttiah Muralitharan is an expert bowler of doosra. First coined by Pakistani wicket keeper Moin Khan.[1]
Dot ball 
a delivery bowled without any runs scored off it, so called because it is recorded in the score book with a single dot.
normally the scoring of a 1000 runs and the taking of 100 wickets in the same season.
Double Hat-trick 
Taking four wickets in four consecutive balls[citation needed]. Former Hampshire player Kevan James is the only player in first class cricket's history to take a double hat-trick and score a century in the same match, achieved against India at Southampton in 1996. Sri Lankan fast bowler Lasith Malinga is the only international player to have taken a double hat-trick, against South Africa in the 2007 world cup.
Down the Pitch (also Down the Wicket)
describing the motion of a batsman towards the bowler prior to or during the delivery, made in the hope of turning a good length ball into a half-volley.
  1. a result in timed matches where the team batting last are not all out, but fail to exceed their opponent's total. Not to be confused with a tie, in which the side batting last is all out or run out of overs with the scores level.
  2. an antiquated stroke that has fallen into disuse, it was originally a deliberate shot that resembled the Chinese cut – the ball being played between one's own legs.[8]
Draw stumps
Declare the game over; a reference to (with)drawing the stumps from the ground by the umpire.
the slight lateral curved-path movement that a spinner extracts while the ball is in flight. Considered very good bowling.[1]
a short break in play, generally taken in the middle of a session, when refreshments are brought out to the players and umpires by the twelfth men of each side. Drinks breaks do not always take place, but they are usual in test matches, particularly in hot countries.
Drinks Waiter 
a jocular term for the twelfth man, referring to his job of bringing out drinks.
a powerful shot generally hit along the ground or sometimes in the air in a direction between cover point on the off side and mid-wicket on the leg side, or in an arc between roughly thirty degrees each side of the direction along the pitch.
  1. the accidental "dropping" of a ball that was initially caught by a fielder, thus denying the dismissal of the batsman; when such an event occurs, the batsman is said to have been "dropped".
  2. the number of dismissals which occur in a team's innings before a given batsman goes in to bat; a batsman batting at 'first drop' is batting at number three in the batting order, going in after one wicket has fallen.
Drop-in pitch 
a temporary pitch that is cultivated off-site from the field which also allows other sports to share the use of the field with less chance of injury to the players.
common abbreviation for the Umpire Decision Review System.
a batsman's score of nought (zero) dismissed, as in "he was out for a duck." It can refer to a score of nought not out during an innings, as in "she hasn't got off her duck yet", but never refers to a completed innings score of nought not out. Originally called a "duck's egg" because of the "0" shape in the scorebook.[1][3] ( see both Golden, Diamond, and Platinum duck )
Duck under delivery 
a short pitched delivery that appears to be a bouncer, making the striker duck to avoid from being hit; but instead of bouncing high, it has a low bounce which causes the batsman to be dismissed LBW, or occasionally bowled.
Duckworth-Lewis method 
a mathematically based rule that derives a target score for the side batting second in a rain-affected one-day match.[1]

[edit] E

See Hawk-Eye.
a bowler who concedes very few runs from his over(s), i.e. has a low economy rate. The opposite of expensive.
Economy rate 
the average number of runs scored per over in the bowler's spell.[1]
Edge (or snick or nick) 
a slight deviation of the ball off the edge of the bat. Top, bottom, inside and outside edges denote the four edges of the bat. The notional four edges are due to the bat being either vertical (inside/outside edge), or horizontal (top/bottom edge). See also leading edge.[22]
another name for one cricket team, which is made of eleven players.[22]
An area of the ground directly behind one of the stumps, used to designate what end a bowler is bowling from (e.g. the Pavilion End).[22] The bowlers take turns delivering alternating overs from the two ends of the pitch.
a bowler who concedes a large number of runs from his over(s), i.e. has a high economy rate.[22] The opposite of economical.
Extra (also sundry) (England, Australia) 
a run not attributed to any batsman; there are five types: byes, leg byes, penalties, wides and no-balls. The first three types are called 'fielding' extras (i.e. the fielders are determined to be at fault for their being conceded) and the last two are called 'bowling' extras (the bowler being considered to be at fault for their being conceded) which are included in the runs conceded by the bowler. Should a bowler concede fielding extras when s/he bowls an over but no other runs they are still counted as having bowled a maiden.[1]

[edit] F

a verb used to indicate the dismissal of a batsman, eg "The fourth wicket fell for the addition of only three runs" or "Bradman fell for 12 [runs]"
Fall of wicket ("FoW") 
the batting team's score at which a batsman gets out.[22]
Farm the strike (also shepherd the strike or farm the bowling)  
of a batsman, contrive to receive the majority of the balls bowled.[22]
Fast bowling (also pace bowling
a style of bowling in which the ball is delivered at high speeds, typically over 90 mph (145 km/h). Fast bowlers also use swing.[22]
Fast leg theory 
A variant of leg theory in which balls are bowled at high speed, aimed at the batsman's body. See Bodyline.
a faint edge.[3]
A wicket which is considered to be good for batting on, offering little, if any, help for a bowler.[1]
a suffix to any number, meaning the number of wickets taken by a team or bowler. (See also fifer/five-fer)
Ferret (originally Australian) 
an exceptionally poor batsman, even more so than a rabbit. Named because the ferret goes in after the rabbits. Sometimes referred to as a weasel for the same reason. See also walking wicket.
Fielder (also, more traditionally, fieldsman
a player on the fielding side who is neither the bowler nor the wicket-keeper, in particular one who has just fielded the ball.
Fill-up game 
when a match finished early a further game was sometimes started to fill in the available time and to entertain the paying spectators.
of a position on the field, close to the line of the pitch (wicket-to-wicket); the opposite of square.[22]
to be given out (often LBW) by an umpire wrongly.
First change
the third bowler used in an innings. As the first bowler to replace either of the opening pair this bowler is the first change that the captain makes to the attack.
First-class cricket 
the senior form of the game; usually county, state or international. First-class matches consist of two innings per side and are usually played over three or more days.[8]
First innings points 
In first-class competitions with a league table to determine standings, such as the Sheffield Shield, in addition to points awarded for winning or tieing a match, a team is also awarded points for taking a first innings lead, ie scoring more than their opponents in the first innings.
being tempted into throwing the bat at a wider delivery outside off-stump and missing, reaching for a wide delivery and missing.
Five-wicket haul (also five-for, five-fer, fifer, or shortened to 5WI or FWI
five or more wickets taken by a bowler in an innings, considered a very good performance. The term five-for is an abbreviation of the usual form of writing bowling statistics, e.g. a bowler who takes 5 wickets and concedes 117 runs is said to have figures of "5 for 117" or "5-117". Sometimes called a "Michelle", after actress Michelle Pfeiffer.
to wield the bat aggressively, often hitting good line and length deliveries indiscriminately. Often applied in a caribbean context, as in 'a flashing blade'.
Flat throw 
a ball thrown by the fielder which is almost parallel to the ground. Considered to be a hallmark of good fielding if the throw is also accurate because flat throws travel at a fast pace.
Flat-track bully 
a batsman high in the batting order who is very good only when the pitch is not giving the bowlers much help.
a gentle movement of the wrist to move the bat, often associated with shots on the leg side.
a delivery which is thrown up at a more arched trajectory by a spinner. Considered to be good bowling. Also loop.
a leg spin delivery with under-spin, so it bounces lower than normal, invented by Clarrie Grimmett.[1][3]
a delivery bowled by a spinner that travels in a highly arched path appearing to 'float' in the air.[1]
Fly slip 
a position deeper than the conventional slips, between the slips and third man.[6]
Follow on 
the team batting second continuing for their second innings, having fallen short of the "follow on target". The definition of this target has changed over time, but is currently 200 runs behind the first teams score in a 5 day game, 150 runs in a 3 or 4 day game, 100 runs in a 2 day event and 75 in a single day.[6]
Follow through 
a bowler's body actions after the release of the ball to stabilise their body.[6]
On a grass pitch, the bowler creates a rough patch where he lands his foot and follows through after delivering the ball. The rough patch can become cratered and becomes more abrasive as the match continues and more people step on it. The abrasive surface means that the ball will increasingly grip more if it lands in the footmarks. Bowlers, particularly spinners, will aim the ball there as it will turn more sharply, and is more likely to get irregular bounce from such areas, making it more difficult for the opposition batsmen.
the necessary (foot) steps that a batsman has to take so as to be at a comfortable distance from where the ball has pitched, just right to hit the ball anywhere he desires, negating any spin or swing that a bowler attempts to extract after bouncing.
Forty-Five (on the one) 
An uncommon fielding position akin to a short third-man, roughly halfway between the pitch and the boundary. Also used for a short backward square leg (at 45° behind square defending a single).
Forward defence 
a commonly-employed defensive shot.
a shot that reaches the boundary after touching the ground, so called because it scores four runs to the batting side.
Four wickets (also 4WI
four or more wickets taken by a bowler in an innings, considered a good performance. Mostly used in One Day Internationals.
Free hit 
a penalty given in some forms of cricket when a bowler bowls a no-ball. The bowler must bowl another delivery, and the batsman cannot be out off that delivery (except by being run out). Between the no-ball and the free hit, the fielders may not change positions (unless the batsmen changed ends on the no-ball).
French cricket 
an informal form of the game. The term "playing French Cricket" can be used by commentators to indicate that a batsman has not moved his feet and looks ungainly because of this.
French Cut (also Chinese Cut, Surrey Cut, Westhoughton Cut or Harrow Drive
an inside edge which misses hitting the stumps by a few centimetres.
Front foot 
in a batsman's stance the front foot is the foot that is nearer to the bowler. A bowler's front foot is the last foot to contact the ground before the ball is released.
Front foot contact 
is the position of the bowler at the moment when his front foot lands on the ground just prior to delivering the ball.
Front-foot shot 
a shot played with the batsman's weight on his front foot (i.e. the foot nearest the bowler).
Fruit Salad 
when a bowler delivers a different type of delivery each time, rather than bowling a constant speed, length and angle. "Fruit Salad" is used most commonly in T20's so as to not let the batsmen get comfortable.
Full length 
a delivery that pitches closer to the batsman than a ball pitching on a good length, but further away than a half-volley.
Full toss (also full bunger)
a delivery that reaches the batsman on the full, i.e. without bouncing. Usually considered a bad delivery to bowl as the batsman has a lot of time to see the ball and play an attacking shot. Also, it does not have a chance to change direction off the ground, making it the ultimate crime for a spin or seam bowler.[1][3]

[edit] G

a batsman prodding at the pitch with his bat between deliveries, either to flatten a bump in the pitch, to soothe his own frazzled nerves or simply to waste time or upset the rhythm of the bowler. Considered facetious as there is not really a point to it.[1][3]
an Australian term describing a delivery that fails to bounce to the expected height after bouncing, thus beating the batsman and "goes under" the bat. Often results in batsmen being out bowled.
Getting your eye in 
when the batsman takes his time to assess the condition of the pitch, ball or weather etc before starting to attempt more potentially risky strokes.
Given man 
given men were players in the early history of cricket who did not normally play for a particular side but were included, for a particular fixture, to strengthen it. Early first-class matches were usually the subject of big wagers and it was therefore desirable that the two sides should be perceived as being of roughly equal strength. The concept is similar to that of handicapping in modern-day horse racing, whereby horses carry different weights in an attempt to equalise their chances of winning, again to encourage betting.
the shot played very fine behind the batsman on the leg side. A glance is typically played on a short-pitched ball.[8] See also flick.
part of a batsman's kit worn to protect the hands from accidental injury. When a hand is in contact with the bat it is considered part of the bat and so a player can be given out caught to a ball that came off the glove hence "gloved a catch."
Glovemanship (also Gauntlet work) 
the art of wicketkeeping. eg 'A marvellous display of glovemanship from the wicketkeeper.'
Golden duck 
a dismissal for nought (zero), from the first ball faced in a batsman's innings. ( cf Platinum duck )
Golden pair (also King pair
a dismissal for nought (zero) runs off the first ball faced in each of a batsman's two innings of a two-innings match (see this list of Pairs in test and first class cricket).
Good length 
the ideal place for a stock delivery to pitch in its trajectory from the bowler to the batsman. It makes the batsman uncertain whether to play a front-foot or back-foot shot. A good length differs from bowler to bowler, based on the type and speed of the bowler. The "good length" is not necessarily the best length to bowl, as a bowler may wish to bowl short or full to exploit a batsman's weaknesses.[1]
a deceptive spinning delivery by a leg spin bowler, also known (particularly in Australia) as the wrong 'un. For a right-hander bowler and a right-handed batsman, a googly will turn from the off side to the leg side. Developed by Bosanquet around 1900, and formerly called a bosie or bosey.[1][3]
causing intentional damage to the pitch or ball.
batting defensively with strong emphasis on not getting out, often under difficult conditions.
Green Top 
a pitch with an unusually high amount of visible grass, that might be expected to assist the pace bowlers.
the rubber casings used on the handle of the bat. The term is also used to describe how the bowler holds the ball and how the batsman holds the bat.
Groundsman (or curator) 
a person responsible for maintaining the cricket field and preparing the pitch.[6]
a delivery that barely bounces.[1]
(Taking) Guard 
the batsman aligning his bat according with a stump (or between stumps) chosen behind him. Typically, the batter marks the position of the bat on the pitch. The marking(s) give the batter an idea as to where s/he is standing in relation to the stumps. See also LBW.[6]
a close fielder near the slip fielders, at an angle to a line between the two sets of stumps of about 100 to 140 degrees.[6]
Gun Bowler 
Principal attacking bowler in a team.[23][24][25] See article fast bowler.
Sometimes used in bowls[26] and ten-pin bowling.[27] Mainly Australian usage.[28]

[edit] H

a batsman of generally low skill with an excessively aggressive approach to batting, commonly with a preference towards lofted cross bat shots. A poor defensive stance and lack of defensive strokes are also features of a hack. Can also be used to describe one particular stroke
Half Century 
an individual score of over 50 runs, but not over 100 (century). Reasonably significant landmark for a batsman and more so for the lower order and the tail-enders.
another term for a long hop. So called because the ball roughly bounces halfway down the pitch.
a delivery that bounces just short of the block hole. Usually easy to drive or glance away.[1]
Half yorker
a delivery intentionally bowled at the base of the stumps. Similar to half volley being a slightly over-pitched yorker.
Harrow Drive (also known as Chinese Cut or French cut
a misplayed shot by the batsman which comes off the inside edge and narrowly misses hitting the stumps, typically going to fine leg.
a bowler taking a wicket off each of three consecutive deliveries that he bowls in a single match (whether in the same over or split up in two consecutive overs, or two overs in two different spells, or even spread across two innings of a test match or first-class cricket game).
Hat-trick ball 
a delivery bowled after taking two wickets with the previous two deliveries. The captain will usually set a very attacking field for a hat-trick ball, to maximise the chances of the bowler taking a hat-trick.
Hawk-Eye (or Eagle-Eye) 
a computer-generated graphic showing the probable trajectory of the ball if it were not hindered by the batsman. Used in an official capacity by the third umpire to assess lbw decisions under the decision review system. Commentators use Hawk-Eye as a visual aide to assess bowlers' deliveries, and (in the days before the DRS) to assess lbw decisions.[1]
Have the call 
A batsman is said to have the call if it is his responsibility to announce to his batting partner whether or not to take a run. According to accepted practice, the call is taken by the batting partner who has the better view of the ball: if the stroke is forward of the crease, the call should be made by the batsman at the striker's end, if it is backward of the crease, the call should be made by the batsman at the non-striker's end. Sometimes, however, it is agreed that the more experienced batsman will always have the call. The usual and preferable calls are only three in number: yes (we will take a run), no (we will not take a run), or wait (we should not take a run until we see if the ball is intercepted by a fieldsman). To avoid any confusion as to which batsman has the call, one or other of them may say your call. Rigorous adherence to these practices is essential to avoid a run out.
Heavy Roller 
a very heavy cylinder of metal used by the ground staff, to improve a wicket for bowling.
Helicopter shot 
A shot played in a fashion where bat almost completes 180 degrees in air(circle) while hitting the ball and hence called Helicopter shot (as it depicts movement of propeller of Helicopter). This shot is so named in the commercial of Pepsi soft drinks featuring Mahendrasingh Dhoni, an Indian batsman who frequently uses this shot. Many people believe the shot to be invented by M.S. Dhoni himself but originally it was first used by Indian legend batsman Sachin Tendulkar in 2002. This shot is generally used to convert yorker ball in boundaries but believed to be very risky too.
Hip Clip 
a trademark shot of Brian Lara involving a flick of the wrist to whip a ball, at hip height, at right angles past the fielder at square leg.
Hit wicket 
a batsman getting out by dislodging the bails of the wicket behind him either with his bat or body as he tries to play the ball or set off for a run.[2]
an unrefined shot played to the leg side usually across the line of the ball.
Hold-up an end 
A batsman who is intentionally restricting their scoring and concentrating on defence whilst their batting partner scores runs at the other end. Also can refer to a bowler who is restricting runs at their end.
Hole out 
To be dismissed by being caught, usually referring to a catch from a lofted shot (or attempt thereof) in the outfield or forward from the wicket, rather than being caught behind by the wicketkeeper, in the slips cordon, or a leg trap fielder from edges or gloved balls.
a bowler is said to 'have the hoodoo' on a batsman when they have got them out many times in their career. (See rabbit II.)
a shot, similar to a pull, but played so that the ball is struck when it is above the batsman's shoulder.
Hot Spot 
a technology used in television coverage to evaluate snicks and bat-pad catches. The batsman is filmed with an infrared camera, and friction caused by the strike of the ball shows up as a white "hot spot" on the picture. If the crowd are inquired as to what a hot-spot is not, they reply "A good spot".
"How's that?" (or "Howzat?") 
the cry of a fielding team when appealing, notable because an umpire is not permitted to give the batsman 'out' unless the question is asked.
the pavilion or dressing room, especially one that is home to a large number of rabbits.

[edit] I

of a batsman, presently batting.
Incoming batsman 
the batsman next to come in in the listed batting order. The incoming batsman defined thus is the one who is out when a "Timed Out" occurs.
Inswing or in-swinger
a delivery that curves into the batsman in the air from off to leg.[8]
a delivery that moves into the batsman after hitting the surface.
the region of the field that lies inside the 30 yard circle (27 m) or, in the days before defined circles, the area of the field close to the wicket bounded by an imaginary line through square leg, mid on, mid off and cover point.[8]
one player's or one team's turn to bat (or bowl). Unlike in baseball, and perhaps somewhat confusingly, in cricket the term "innings" is both singular and plural.

[edit] J

Jaffa (also corker)
an exceptionally well bowled, practically unplayable delivery, usually but not always from a fast bowler.[1][3] Taken from the idea that a 'Jaffa' is the best type of Orange.
Jockstrap (also jock strap)
underwear for male cricketers, designed to securely hold a cricket box in place when batting or wicket keeping.

[edit] K

Keeper (or 'Keeper) 
short form of Wicket-keeper.
King pair (also Golden pair
a batsman who gets out off the first ball he faces in both innings of a two-innings match, without scoring any runs in either one.
a batsman's innings. A batsman who makes a high score in an innings can be said to have had a "good knock".
an overseas players who plays in English domestic cricket under the Kolpak ruling.[1]
kookaburra is a turf cricket ball that has been used exclusively in Australia, New Zealand and South African Test Cricket since 1946. All ODI matches are played with kookaburra balls but test matches in India are played with SG cricket balls. And when England hosts an international test match, they use "Duke cricket balls" whereas in all other test matches, Kookaburra balls come in.
Kwik cricket 
an informal form of the game, specifically designed to introduce children to the sport.

[edit] L

The Indian version of the hoik. Comes from the English 'lap', and old term for a stroke somewhere between a pull and a sweep.[8] In Indian sub-continent, it has its origin to Hindi word 'lapet' meaning 'wind'(verb) owing to the un-skilled circular course of bat.
Leading edge 
the ball hitting the front edge of the bat as opposed to its face, when playing a cross-bat shot such as a pull. Often results in an easy catch for the bowler or a skier for someone else.[1]
Leave (noun) 
the action of the batsman not attempting to play at the ball. He may do this by holding the bat above his body. However, there is a clause in the LBW rules making him more susceptible to getting out this way. He may also not claim any leg byes, because if he does, the Umpire will call Dead Ball and runs will not be allowed
Leg before wicket (LBW) 
a way of dismissing the batsman. In brief, the batsman is out if, in the opinion of the umpire, the ball hits any part of the batsman's body (usually the leg) before hitting the bat and would have gone on to hit the stumps.[1][2]
Leg break 
a leg spin delivery which, for a right-hander bowler and a right-handed batsman, will turn from the leg side to the off side (usually away from the batsman).[1]
Leg bye 
extras taken after a delivery hits any part of the body of the batsman other than the bat or the gloved hand that holds the bat. If the batsman makes no attempt to play the ball with the bat, leg byes may not be scored.[1]
Leg cutter 
a break delivery bowled by a fast or medium-pace bowler with similar action to a spin bowler, but at a faster pace. The ball breaks from the leg side to the off side of the batsman.[1]
Leg glance 
a delicate shot played at a ball aimed slightly on the leg side, using the bat to flick the ball as it passes the batsman, deflecting towards the square leg or fine leg area.
Leg side 
the half of the field to the rear of the batsman as he takes strike (also known as the on side).[1]
Leg slip 
a fielding position equivalent to a slip, but on the leg side.
Leg spin 
a form of bowling in which the bowler imparts spin on the ball by turning the wrist as the ball is delivered, and for that reason also known as "wrist spin". The stock delivery for a leg spinner is a leg break; other leg spin deliveries include the googly, the top spinner, and the flipper. The term leg spinner is usually reserved for right handed bowlers who bowl in this manner. Left handers who bowl with wrist spin are known as unorthodox spinners. This is also known as the Chinaman.
Leg theory 
a style of bowling attack where balls are aimed towards the leg side, utilizing several close-in, leg side fielders. The aim of leg theory is to cramp the batsman so that he has little room to play a shot and will hopefully make a mistake, allowing the close fielders to prevent runs from being scored or to catch him out. Leg theory is considered boring play by spectators and commentators since it forces batsmen to play conservatively, resulting in few runs being scored. See also fast leg theory and Bodyline.[1]

Cricket lengths
  1. another term for a leg spinner (see leg spin);
  2. another term for a leg break.
the place along the pitch where a delivery bounces (see short pitched, good length, half-volley, full toss).[1]
a noun that refers to a batsman being reprieved because of a mistake by the fielding team, through dropping a catch, missing a run-out chance or the wicket-keeper missing a stumping.
short for "bad light." Umpires offer the batsmen the option to cease play if conditions become too dark to be safe for batting.
Limited overs match 
a one-innings match where each side may only face a set number of overs. Another name for one-day cricket.
Line (also see Line and length) 
the deviation of the point along the pitch where a delivery bounces from the line from wicket-to-wicket (to the leg side or the off side).[1]
Line and length bowling 
bowling so that a delivery pitches on a good length and just outside off stump. This forces the batsman to play a shot as the ball may hit the stumps.[1]
List A cricket 
the limited-overs equivalent of first-class cricket.
Long hop 
a delivery that is much too short to be a good length delivery, but without the sharp lift of a bouncer. Usually considered a bad delivery to bowl as the batsman has a lot of time to see the ball and play an attacking shot.[1]
Long on 
A field position near the boundary on the leg side kept to sweep up straight drives.
the curved path of the ball bowled by a spinner.[1]
a poor delivery bowled at the start of a bowler's spell.
Lower order 
the batsmen who bat at between roughly number 8 and 11 in the batting order and who may have some skill at batting, but are generally either specialist bowlers or wicket-keepers with limited batting ability.
the first of the two intervals taken during a full day's play, which usually occurs at lunchtime at about 12:30 p.m. (local time).

[edit] M

Maiden over 
an over in which no runs are scored off the bat, and no wides or no balls are bowled. Considered a good performance for a bowler, maiden overs are tracked as part of a bowling analysis.[1][3]
Maker's name 
the full face of the bat, where the manufacturer's logo is normally located. Used particularly when referring to a batsman's technique when playing a straight drive, e.g. "Sachin Tendulkar played a beautiful on-drive for four, giving it plenty of maker's name...".[1]
also called the Skyline. It is a bar graph of the runs scored off each over in a one-day game, with dots indicating the overs in which wickets fell. The name is alternatively applied to a bar graph showing the number of runs scored in each innings in a batsman's career. So called because the bars supposedly resemble the skyscrapers that dominate the skyline of Manhattan.[1]
the running-out of a non-striking batsman who leaves his crease before the bowler has released the ball. It is named after Vinoo Mankad, an Indian bowler, who controversially used this method in a Test match. This is relatively common in indoor cricket and is noted separately from run outs, though almost unheard of in first-class cricket.[1]
Man of the match 
an award which may be given to the highest scoring batsman, leading wicket taker or best overall performer in a match. Man of the series is the same over a whole series.
Marillier shot 
a shot played with the bat held parallel to the pitch in front of the batsman, with the toe of the bat pointing towards the bowler. The batsman attempts to flick the ball over the wicket-keeper's head. Famous exponents of the shot include former Zimbabwean international Douglas Marillier, and Kiwi Brendon McCullum, and Sri Lanka's Tillakaratne Dilshan. Also known as the Dilscoop (after Dilshan), the Paddle scoop, the "ramp shot".
Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) 
the cricket club that owns Lord's cricket ground in London NW8. It is the custodian of the laws of cricket.[1]
Match fixing 
bribing players of one of the teams to deliberately play poorly, with the intention of cashing in on bets on the result of the game.
Match referee 
an official whose role is to ensure that the spirit of the game is upheld. He has the power to fine players and/or teams for unethical play.
Meat of the bat 
the thickest part of the bat, from which the most energy is imparted to the ball.
a bowler who bowls slower than a pace bowler, but faster than a spin bowler. Speed is important to the medium-pacer, but they try and defeat the batsman with the movement of the ball, rather than the pace at which it is bowled. Medium-pacers either bowl cutters or rely on the ball to swing in the air. They usually bowl at about 55–70 mph (90–110 km/h).
Middle of the bat 
the area of the face of the bat that imparts maximum power to a shot if that part of the bat hits the ball. Also known as the "meat" of the bat. Effectively the same as the sweet spot; however, a shot that has been "middled" usually means one that is hit with great power as well as timing.[1]
Middle order 
the batsmen who bat at between roughly number 5 and 7 in the batting order. Typically contains batsmen who may be more attacking stroke players than the top order players, but without the complete technique to bat for a long a period of time. Often includes all-rounders and the wicket-keeper.
Mid wicket 
A field position on leg side that is a mirror of deep extra cover on the off side.
See five-wicket haul.
Military medium 
medium-pace bowling that lacks the speed to trouble the batsman. Often has derogatory overtones, suggesting the bowling is boring, innocuous, or lacking in variety, but can also be a term of praise, suggesting a military regularity and lack of unintended variation. A good military medium bowler will pitch the ball on the same perfect line and length for six balls an over, making it very hard for the batsman to score runs.[1]
shouted by a fieldsman when "calling" a catch; that is, announcing to other fieldsmen that he is in a position to take the catch. This is considered good practice, as it prevents two fieldsmen colliding with one another in an attempt to take the same catch. See call.
a fielder failing to collect the ball cleanly, often fumbling a pickup or dropping a catch.
Mongoose bat 
A cricket bat specifically designed for Twenty20 cricket. The design is unusual in that the blade is 33% shorter than a conventional bat and the handle is 43% longer.
a ball that doesn't bounce after pitching. This term was coined by legendary player and commentator Richie Benaud.

[edit] N

Negative bowling 
a persistent line of bowling down the leg-side of a batsman to stymie the batsman from scoring (particularly in Test matches).
a score of 111, either of a team or an individual batsman. According to an established superstition, the score is unlucky and at that point a batsman is likely to be dismissed. The traditional measure to avert the bad luck, is for some of the people concerned (usually among the spectators) to stand on one leg. Scores of 222 and 333 are called Double and Triple Nelson respectively.[1] The Australian term "Devil's number" or "Dreaded number" similarly refers to a superstition concerning a number traditionally regarded as unlucky.
Nervous nineties 
the period of batsman's innings when his or her score is between 90 and 99. During this phase many players bat extremely cautiously in order to avoid being out before they obtain a century.[1]

Shaun Pollock in the nets
a pitch surrounded on three sides by netting, used by for practice by batsman and bowler.[8]
Net run rate (NRR) 
the run rate scored by the winning team subtracted by run rate scored by losing team. The winning team gets positive value, losing team the negative value. In a series, the mean of the NRR for all matches played by the team is taken. Alternatively, for a series, a team's NRR can be calculated as (total runs scored) / (total overs received) – (total runs conceded) / (total overs bowled)[1]
New rock 
New (unused) cricket ball.
When a batsman indecisively pushes at a delivery pitched outside of off stump, rather than leaving it or playing a committed stroke. Term derived from the tentative way a mouse has a nibble at cheese. Contact with the ball will often result in an edge to the wicketkeeper or slips.
Another term for edge or snick.[1]
(in a first-class game) a lower order batsman sent in when the light is dimming to play out the remaining overs of the day in order to protect more valuable batsmen for the next day's play.
No ball 
an illegal delivery, usually because of the bowler overstepping the popping crease, scoring an extra for the batting side. Full tosses that pass above the waist of the batsman are also deemed no balls. See beamer. Other occasions for a call of no ball include throwing, having more than two fielders (exluding the wicketkeeper) behind square and breaking the return crease in the delivery stride. [2]
the batsman standing at the bowling end.[2]
Not out 
  1. a batsman who is in and has been not yet been dismissed, particularly when play has ceased.[8]
  2. the call of the umpire when turning down an appeal for a wicket.[8]
to score runs by gently nudging the ball into vacant areas of the field. Also called milking around e.g.: "He milked the bowler around".[1]

[edit] O

Odds match 
a match in which one side has more players than the other. Generally the extra players were allowed to field as well as bat and so the bowling side had more than 11 fielders.
One Day International (ODI) 
a match between two national sides limited to 50 overs per innings, played over at most one day.
Off break 
an off spin delivery which, for a right-handed bowler and a right-handed batsman, will turn from the off side to the leg side (usually into the batsman).[1]
Off cutter 
an off break delivery bowled by a fast or medium-pace bowler which moves into the batsman after hitting the surface. (The ball breaks from the off-side to the leg side of the batsman.)(see In-Cutter)[1]
Off side 
the half of the pitch in front of the batsman's body as he takes strike. For the right handed batsman this is the right half of the pitch, looking up the wicket towards the bowler, and the left half for the left handed batsman.[1]
Off spin 
a form of bowling in which the bowler imparts spin on the ball with the fingers as the ball is delivered, and for that reason also known as "finger spin". The usual stock delivery for an off spinner is an off break, but other off spin deliveries includes the arm ball and the doosra. The term off spinner is usually reserved for right handed bowlers who bowl in this manner. Left handers are described as orthodox or unorthodox.[1]
Off the mark 
when the first run is scored by a batsman, it is said that the batsman is off the mark. If a batsman gets out without scoring, it is said that the batsman failed to get off the mark.[29]
On side 
the half of the pitch behind the batsman's body as he takes strike i.e. the left half for a right-handed batsman and the right for a left-hander (also known as the leg side).[1]
On a length 
describing a delivery bowled on a good length.
On strike 
the batsman currently facing the bowling attack is said to be on strike.
On the up 
describes a batsman playing a shot, usually a drive, to a ball that is quite short and has already risen to knee height or more as the shot is played.
One-day cricket 
an abbreviated form of the game, with just one innings per team, usually with a limited number of overs and played over one day.
One down 
a batsman who bats at #3, a crucial position in the team's batting innings.
One short 
the term used when a batsman fails to make contact with the ground beyond the popping crease, and turns back for an additional run.
  1. a batsman skilled at batting at the beginning of an innings, when the ball is new.
  2. one of the bowlers who open the innings, usually the fastest bowlers in the side.
  1. shots played in the accepted "textbook" manner, and batsmen who play in this manner.
  2. a left arm spin bowler who spins the ball with his fingers. This imparts spin in the same direction as a right-handed leg spin bowler. See: Left-arm orthodox spin.
  1. the state of a batsman who has been dismissed.
  2. the word sometimes spoken while raising the index finger by the umpire when answering an appeal for a wicket in the affirmative.
Out dipper 
a dipper that curves away from the batsman before pitching.
a delivery that curves away from the batsman.[1]
the part of the field lying outside the 30 yard (27 m) circle measured from the centre of the pitch or, less formally, the part of the pitch furthest from the wickets.[8]
the delivery of six consecutive legal balls by one bowler.[2] Traditionally eight in Australia.
Over rate 
the number of overs bowled per hour.
Over the wicket 
a right-handed bowler bowling to the left of the stumps, and vice-versa for a left-handed bowler.[8]
the action of bowling with the arm swinging from behind the body over the head, releasing the ball on the down swing without bending the elbow. This type of bowling is the only type normally allowed in all official cricket matches. Compare with underarm.
Overpitched delivery 
a delivery that is full pitched but not a yorker, bouncing just in front of the batsman. Considered a poor delivery, as it easy for the batsman to get the middle of the bat to the ball. An overpitched ball is often a half-volley.[8]
Overthrows also buzzers 
the scoring of extra runs due to an errant throw from a fielder. Occasionally used erroneously for any runs scored after a fielder misfields the ball. Also the throw itself.[8]

[edit] P

Pace bowling (also fast bowling
a style of bowling in which the ball is delivered at high speeds, typically over 90 mph (145 km/h). Pace bowlers also use swing.
protective equipment for batsmen and wicket-keepers, covering the legs.[3]
Pad away or pad-play
use the pads hit the ball away from the wicket, only possible when there is no danger of LBW (for example, if the ball pitched on the leg side). Using the pad instead of the bat removes the danger of being caught by close fielders.[8]
Paddle sweep
A very fine sweep, almost just a tickle of the delivery pitched on or outside leg stump.
Paddle scoop
A shot where the batsman scoops the ball over his/her shoulder in order to find a boundary either behind the wicketkeeper or in the fine leg region.[1]
a "pair of spectacles" (0–0) or a "pair of ducks". A batsman's score of nought (zero) runs in both innings of a two-innings match (see this list of Pairs in test and first class cricket).[1]
the number of runs scored between a pair of batsmen before one of them gets dismissed. This also includes the deliveries faced and time taken.
Part Time 
a bowler who doesn't always bowl but is adequate enough to bowl seldom and is often successful because of variation in performance and their surprising attributes.
Term for the grandstand or building complex where the player's dressing rooms and members of the association or club owning the ground are seated. The dressing rooms are generally located in the members' area.
a delivery bowled by a fast bowler described as unplayable, usually a really good delivery that a batsman gets out to, or one that is too good that the batsmen cannot even edge.
Perfect over, The 
For a bowler, it would be a Maiden over by scoring all 6 wickets within an over. For a batsman, it would be scoring 36 runs (or more by extras) by scoring all sixes off a single bowler in a single over.
Perfume ball 
a bouncer on or just outside off-stump that passes within inches of the batsman's face. So called because the ball is supposedly close enough to the batsman's face that he can smell it.
Picket fences 
an over in which one run is scored off each delivery. It looks like picket fences 111111, hence the name.
Pie Chucker (or Pie Thrower) 
A poor bowler, usually of slow to medium pace whose deliveries are flighted so much as to appear similar to a pie in the air. Considered easy to score off by batsmen – see Buffet Bowling. Famously used by English batsman Kevin Pietersen to describe the part-time left arm orthodox spin of Indian batsman Yuvraj Singh.[3]
Pinch hitter 
a lower order batsman promoted up the batting order to increase the run rate. The term, if not the precise sense, is borrowed from baseball.[1]
  1. the rectangular surface in the centre of the field where most of the action takes place, usually made of earth or clay. It is 22 yards in length.[1]
  2. of the ball, to bounce before reaching the batsman after delivery.
  3. the spot where the ball pitches (sense 2).
Pitch (It) Up 
to bowl a delivery on a fuller length.
Pitch map 
a diagram showing where a number of balls, usually from a particular bowler, have pitched.[12] Compare beehive.
the term used to denote the ball hit, such that it bisects or trisects the fielders placed on the field. The ball usually ends up being a four.
Platinum duck 
term used to describe being dismissed without even facing a ball - most likely by being run out as the non striker. Also sometimes referred to as a Diamond Duck.
Playing on 
for the batsman to hit the ball with his bat but only succeed in diverting it onto the stumps. The batsman is thus out bowled. Also known as "dragging on" or "chopping on"[1]
of a dismissal by LBW: indisputable, obvious.[1][3] Of a wicket, giving true bounce.[8]
A fielding position square of the batsman's off side.
Point of release 
the position of the bowler at the moment when the ball is released.
a term (used primarily by UK county players) to describe a very high volume of run-making, or batting assault.
a ball that rises sharply from the pitch when bowled ('pops up').
Popping crease 
One of two lines in the field defined as being four feet in front of and parallel to that end's bowling crease where the wickets are positioned. A batsman who does not have either the bat or some part of his or her body touching the ground behind the popping crease is considered out of his ground and is in danger of being dismissed run out or stumped.
a block of overs that in One Day Internationals offer a temporary advantage to the batting side.
South African form of Twenty20
The name of a limited overs competition played in England towards the late summer. Games are arranged in group stages with later knockout stages for the qualifiers. So named as there are 40 overs per side.
A zero rotation slower or variation ball, which when bowled correctly, moves erratically in flight like a butterfly. So named by the Bangladesh bowling coach Ian Pont & fielding coach Julien Fountain as Projapoti means butterfly in Bengali.
Protected area 
An area of the pitch defined as two feet wide down the middle of the pitch and beginning five feet from each popping crease. A bowler is not allowed to trespass this area in his or her follow-through or the bowler is given a warning. Three such warnings will immediately bar him or her from bowling for the rest of the innings.
a shot played to the leg side to a short-pitched delivery, between mid-wicket and backward square-leg.[1]
Synonym of runchase.

[edit] Q

Queen Pair 
a batsman who gets out for zero runs off the second ball he faces in both innings of a two-innings match. Though not a standard cricketing term, Geoffrey Boycott has used the term often enough that it may be encountered in cricket commentary.[citation needed]
Traditionally, a quick bowler was one who completed his over in a short space of time. In more recent years, it has been used as a synonym for a fast or pace bowler. (Paradoxically, a quick bowler in the traditional sense was often also a slow bowler, that is, a bowler who delivered slow deliveries. A fast or pace bowler was rarely also a quick bowler in the traditional sense, because he took a longer time to complete an over.)
the total number of overs (maximum 10) allotted to a bowler in an ODI, or any limited overs match. Typically total overs in the innings divided by 5, rounded to next highest integer.

[edit] R

I. a particularly bad batsman, usually a specialist bowler. A "rabbit" often seems unsure of how he should even hold his bat, as typified by Phil Tufnell, Allan Donald, Courtney Walsh, Glenn McGrath, and Chris Martin. See also ferret.[1]
II. The term is also used for a higher order batsman who is out frequently to the same bowler, although then most often in the form bunny; for example, Ricky Ponting is sometimes described by commentators as "Harbhajan Singh's bunny".
Rain rule 
any of various methods of determining which team wins a rain-shortened one-day match. The current preferred method is the Duckworth-Lewis method.
Red cherry 
a nickname for the red cricket ball. See cherry.
a system which allows for batsmen or fielding captains to appeal an umpiring decision to the third umpire. Still in the experimental stage and not currently used for all Test series.[30]
Reserve day 
a vacant day in a touring schedule which can be used to replay or reconvene a match which is washed out. Mostly seen in the latter stages of major limited-overs tournaments.
Rest day 
a non-playing day in the middle of a multiple day game. These were once common, but are seldom seen in the modern era.
for a batsman to voluntarily leave the field during his innings, usually because of injury. A player who retires through injury/illness ("retired hurt/ill") may return in the same innings at the fall of a wicket, and continue where he left off.[8] A player who is uninjured ("retired out") may return only with the opposing captain's consent.
Reverse Sweep 
a right handed batsman sweeping the ball like a left handed batsman and vice-versa.[1]
Reverse swing 
the art of swinging the ball contrary to how a conventionally swung ball moves in the air; i.e. movement away from the rough side. Many theories as to how this may occur. Usually happens with an older ball than conventional swing, but not always, atmospheric conditions and bowler skill also being important factors. It has been espoused that once the 'rough' side becomes extremely rough a similar effect to that of a dimpled golf ball may cause it to move more quickly through the air than the 'shiny' side of the ball. Invented by Pakistani fast bowler Sarfaraz Nawaz and later perfected by the likes of Imran Khan, Wasim Akram and Waqar Younis
Rib Tickler 
A ball bowled short of a length that bounces up higher than expected and strikes the batsman in the midriff (usually the side) and hits several ribs. Not a nice ball to play.
Ring field 
A field which is set primarily to save singles, consisting of fieldsmen in all or most of the primary positions forward of the wicket, on or about the fielding circle (or where it would be).
A very hard and flat pitch, good for batting on.
The 2nd XI of a club or county. From the Warwickshire and New Zealand player Roger Twose.
a cylindrical implement used to flatten the pitch before play.
Rotate the strike 
to look to make singles wherever possible, in order to ensure that both batsmen are continually facing deliveries and making runs. The opposite of farming the strike.
a worn-down section of the pitch, often due to bowlers' footmarks, from which spinners are able to obtain more turn.
Roundarm bowling 
the type of bowling action in which the bowler's outstretched hand is perpendicular to his body when he releases the ball. Round arm bowling is legal in cricket.
Run chase 
The act/task of the team batting second (in a limited-overs match) or batting fourth (in an unlimited overs match), trying to win a match by batting and surpassing the runs accumulated by the opponent.
Run out 
dismissal by a member of the fielding side breaking the wicket while the batsman is outside his/her crease in the process of making a run.[2]
Run rate 
the average number of runs scored per over.
Run up 
see approach.
a player of the batting side assisting an injured batsman in running between the wickets. The runner must wear and carry the same equipment and both the injured batsman and the runner can be run out, the injured batsman having to stay in his ground.[8]

[edit] S

Sawn off 
A batsman who has been wrongly or unluckily given out by an umpire.
Someone who scores the progress of the game. Runs, wickets, extras etc
the stitching on the ball.[1]
Seam bowling 
a bowling style which uses the uneven conditions of the ball – specifically the raised seam – to make it deviate upon bouncing off the pitch. Contrast with swing bowling.[8]
a person who is delegated with the task of choosing players for a cricket team. Typically the term is used in the context of player selection for national, provincial and other representative teams at the professional levels of the game, where a "panel of selectors" acts under the authority of the relevant national or provincial cricket administrative body.[8]
A period of play, from start to lunch, lunch to tea and tea until stumps.[3]
Shepherd the strike (also farm the strike)  
of a batsman, contrive to receive the majority of the balls bowled, often to protect a weaker batting partner.
a delivery that skids after pitching (i.e. doesn't bounce as high as would be expected), usually at a quicker pace, resulting in a batsman unable to hit the ball cleanly.[1]
a delivery that bounces relatively close to the bowler. The intent is to make the ball bounce well above waist height (a bouncer). A slow or low-bouncing short-pitched ball is known as a long hop.
the act of the batsman hitting the ball with his bat.
Side on 
  1. A side on bowler has back foot, chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.
  2. A batsman is side on if his hips and shoulders are facing at ninety degrees to the bowler.
a large board placed behind the bowler, beyond the boundary, used to provide contrast to the ball, thereby aiding the striker in seeing the ball when it is delivered. Typically coloured white to contrast a red ball, or black to contrast a white ball.[8]
a modifier to the names of some fielding positions to denote that they are unusually close to the batsman, most often silly mid-off, silly mid-on, silly midwicket and silly point.[3]
Silly Nanny 
a rough streak of poor bowls, usually resulting in substitution or a chorus of dismay from the crowd.[3]
a run scored by the batsmen physically running once only between the wickets.
an easy catch (or occasionally a stumping) that should generally be taken.
Six (or Sixer) 
a shot which passes over or touches the boundary without having bounced or rolled, so called because it scores six runs to the batting side.
(pronounced Sky-er) A mistimed shot hit almost straight up in the air, to the sky. Usually results in the batsman being caught out. Occasionally however the fielder positions himself perfectly to take the catch but misses it or drops it. Such an error is considered very embarrassing for the fielder.
used synonymously with Captain
alternative name for Manhattan.
a cut, but played aggressively or possibly recklessly – a cut (q.v.) being a shot played square on the off side to a short-pitched delivery wide of off stump. So called because the batsman makes a "cutting" motion as he plays the shot.
verbal abuse in simple terms, or a psychological tactic in more complex terms. Used by cricketers both on and off the field to gain advantage of the opposition by frustrating them and breaking the concentration of the opposition. Considered in some cricketing countries to be against the spirit of the game, although occasional sledging remains common.[3]
a kind of cut shot played with the bat making an obtuse angle with the batsman.[8]
a wrist spinner's delivery where backspin is put on the ball.
a close fielder behind the batsman, next to the wicket-keeper on the off-side. There can be as many as four slips for a faster bowler. Also ("in the slips", "at first slip") the positions occupied by such fielders.[3]
a player who specialises in fielding in the slips e.g. "Gubby rates our cricketing Prime Minister as having been a distinctly good slipper, as well as a useful away swing bowler and a determined bat." [31]
a powerful shot, usually hit in the air in an attempt to score a six, often without too much concern for proper technique.
Slog overs 
the final 10 overs (particularly the last five) in an ODI match during which batsmen play aggressively scoring at a very high rate.
Slog sweep 
a sweep shot hit hard and in the air, over the same boundary as for a hook. Used exclusively against spin bowlers. A type of slog.[1]
a batsman who hits a lot of slogs.[1]
Slower ball
a medium-pace delivery bowled by a fast bowler. Designed to deceive the batsman into playing the ball too early and skying it to a fielder. Has several variations.
Slow left armer 
a left-arm, orthodox, finger spin bowler; the left-handed equivalent of an off spinner (see off spin). Bowlers such as Monty Panesar and Daniel Vettori are slow left armers.
Snick (also edge
a slight deviation of the ball off the edge of the bat. Top, bottom, inside and outside edges denote the four edges of the bat.
a device used to measure the distinct sound generated when a batsman snicks the ball. The distinct sound is shown as a high spike (like one generated by a seismograph during an earthquake) on the Snick-o-Meter. Sometimes called snicko.
a player selected in the team primarily for a single skill, i.e. not an all-rounder or a wicketkeeper-batsman. Such players can be described as specialist batsmen, specialist bowlers or specialist wicketkeepers.
another word for a pair. From the appearance of two ducks on the scorecard as 0-0. Two first ball ducks in the same match may be called a pair of golden spectacles.
  1. the number of continuous overs a bowler bowls before being relieved.
  2. the total number of overs that a bowler bowls in an innings.
Spider Graph 
similar to a Wagon Wheel, where different coloured lines are drawn to where a batsman has hit the ball during his innings. This accumulates into a spider looking graph. Each amount of runs, 1's, 2's etc. are represented with a separate colour. This can show which stroke(s) each batsman is dominant at eg. Matthew Hayden would have a strong down the ground graph with many 4's straight of the wicket.
Spin bowling 
a style of bowling in which a spin bowler ("spinner") attempts to deceive the batsman by imparting spin on the ball using either their fingers or their wrist. Spin bowling is most effective when the ball is travelling relatively slowly, and so most spinners bowl at a pace between 40 and 55 mph.
the joint between the handle and the blade of a bat; the weakest part of the bat. If the ball hits the splice it is likely to dolly up for an easy catch.
  1. of a position on the field, perpendicular to the line of the pitch; the opposite of fine.
  2. the area in the middle of the ground where the pitches are prepared.
  3. an imaginary line extending the crease to the boundary on the leg side; it is illegal to have more than two fielders behind square.
A Cut shot, played square, i.e. perpendicular to the bowler's delivery.
Stance (also batting stance) 
the posture of a batsman holding his bat when facing a delivery.
Stand (noun)
A synonym for partnership.
Stand (verb)
An Umpire who officiates a cricket match is described as standing in that match.[citation needed]
Standing up 
position adopted by a Wicket-keeper, close to the stumps, when a slow (or, occasionally, medium pace) bowler is operating.
a batsman is said to have a start when he successfully avoids being dismissed for very few runs; in Australia, this is generally understood to mean a score of twenty runs. Once a batsman survives this initial period and becomes established, batting generally becomes easier as he has settled into a rhythm and has adapted to the playing conditions and is less vulnerable, so they are then expected to convert their starts into big scores.
Steaming in 
a bowler taking a fast run-up to bowl is said to be steaming in.
Sticky dog 
a drying wicket that is exceedingly difficult to bat on. Uncommon if not non-existent in recent years due to the routine covering of pitches.
Sticky wicket 
a difficult wet pitch.[8]
Stock bowler 
a bowler whose role is to restrict scoring rather than to take wickets. Usually called upon to bowl large amounts of overs at a miserly run rate while strike bowlers rest between spells or attempt to take wickets from the other end.
Stock delivery (also stock ball) 
a bowler's standard delivery; the delivery a bowler bowls most frequently. Bowlers usually have one stock delivery and one or more variation deliveries.
a batsman who makes it his job to defend and to score at a mediocre rate. This style is prone to derogatory comments but also compliments on resilience and technique.
a batsman who plays defensively rather than trying to score.[32]
Straight bat 
the bat when held vertically, or when swung through a vertical arc
Straight up-and-down 
pejorative term used to describe a fast or medium paced bowler who cannot swing or seam the ball.
a form of dismissal whereby a batsman, in trying to play a glance very fine to a leg-side ball, gets an inside edge which is caught by the wicket-keeper.
a pitch which is easy for batsmen and difficult for bowlers. Sometimes called a road, highway, and various other synonyms for street.
the position as batsman, as opposed to non striker. Often, 'Keep [the] strike', to arrange runs on the last ball of an over so as to face the first ball of the next. 'Shepherd the Strike': to keep doing this to protect a less skillful batsman.[2]
Strike bowler 
an attacking bowler whose role is to take wickets rather than to restrict scoring. Usually a fast bowler or attacking spinner who bowls in short spells to attacking field settings.
Strike rate 
  1. (batting) a percentage equal to the number of runs scored by a batsman divided by the number of balls faced.
  2. (bowling) the average number of deliveries bowled before a bowler takes a wicket.
the batsman who faces the deliveries bowled.
an attempt by the batsman to play at a delivery.
  1. one of the three vertical posts making up the wicket ("off stump", "middle stump" and "leg stump");[2]
  2. a way of dismissing a batsman; or
  3. ("stumps") or ("at stumps") the end of a day's play.[2]
Sun Ball 
A method of bowling where the ball is intentionally bowled at a great height and a sluggish pace. This is done to interrupt the batsman's field of vision using the suns rays often causing disastrous consequences such as blunt strikes to the head.
Sundry (also extra
a run not attributed to any batsman, such as a bye, wide or no-ball.
Under experimental One-Day International rules introduced in July 2005, the twelfth man became a substitute, able to come on and replace any player, with the substitute able to take over the substituted player's batting and bowling duties. A twelfth man used as a substitute in this way was known as the supersub. The first supersub was Vikram Solanki, who replaced Simon Jones at Headingley on 7 July 2005. However, as Solanki replaced Jones after England had bowled, and England only lost one wicket in chasing down Australia's target, Solanki did not get to play any part in the game. The ICC cancelled the experiment in February 2006.[33]
Surrey Cut (also Chinese Cut or French cut or Harrow Drive
an inside edge, often from a drive which narrowly misses hitting the stumps. The ball often runs down to fine leg.
a shot played to a good length slow delivery. The batsman gets down on one knee and "sweeps" the ball to the leg side.
Sweet spot 
the small area on the face of the bat that gives maximum power for minimum effort when the ball is hit with it. Also known as the "middle" or "meat" of the bat. A shot that is struck with the sweet spot is referred to as being "well timed" (see timing).
a shot general played to spinners, where the bat is played horizontally and low to the ground in an effort to sweep the ball around the back of the legs.[3]
a bowling style usually employed by fast and medium-pace bowlers. The fielding side will polish the ball on one side of the seam only; as the innings continues, the ball will become worn on one side, but shiny on the other. When the ball is bowled with the seam upright, the air will travel faster over the shiny side than the worn side. This makes the ball swing (curve) in the air. Conventional swing would mean that the ball curves in the air away from the shiny side. (see reverse swing).[8]
Switch hit 
a shot played by a batsman who reverses both his stance and his grip during the bowler's run-up, so that a right-handed batsman would play the shot as an orthodox left-hander. The shot was popularised by England batsman Kevin Pietersen, prompting some discussion about its impact on the rules, e.g. for lbw decisions in which it is necessary to distinguish between off and leg stumps.

[edit] T

Also called the lower order refers to the last batsmen in a teams innings (numbers 8 to 11) that are usually made up of specialist bowlers who may have some skill at batting, and usually contains one rabbit or more. A long tail means that a team contains many specialist bowlers while shorter tails means there are more batsmen/all-rounders in the team. If the tail performs well it is said that the tail wagged.[3]
a batsman who bats towards the end of the batting order, usually a specialist bowler or wicket-keeper with relatively poor batting skills. The last of the tail-enders are colloquially known as "bunnies".[1]
The score that the team batting second has to score to beat their opponents. This is one run more than what the team batting first managed.
the second of the two intervals during a full day's play is known as the tea interval, due to its timing at about tea-time. In matches lasting only an afternoon, the tea interval is usually taken between innings.
Tea towel explanation 
a popular comic explanation of the laws of cricket.
A variation delivery for an off spin bowler, Saqlain Mushtaq has been credited with creating it. Teesra comes from the Urdu meaning the third one.
  1. A doosra with extra bounce.
  2. A ball that drifts in from wide of off stump and turns away from the right hander sharply with extra bounce.
  3. A finger spinner's back-spinner. Similar to a wrist spinner's slider or flipper.[34]
The actual definition of this ball has yet to have been definitively announced.
Test match 
a cricket match with play spread over five days with unlimited overs played between two senior international teams. Considered the highest level of the game.
Textbook Shot 
A shot played by the batsmen with perfect technique, also known as a cricket shot
Third man 
position behind the wicket-keeper on the off-side, beyond the slip and gully areas
Third umpire 
an off-field umpire, equipped with a television monitor, whose assistance the two on-field umpires can seek when in doubt.
Through the gate 
"bowled through the gate": dismissed with a ball that passes between the bat and the pads before hitting the wicket.
of a bowler, an illegal bowling action in which the arm is straightened during the delivery.
An old name for a yorker.
An edge to the wicket-keeper or slips. Alternatively a delicate shot usually played to third man or fine leg.
the (very rare) result in which the two teams' scores are equal and the team batting last is all out (or, in a limited overs match, the allotted overs have been played) . Not to be confused with a draw, in which the scores are not equal.
Tied down 
A batsmen or batting team having their run-making restricted by the bowling side.
Timed match 
a match whose duration is based on a set amount of time rather than a set number of overs. Timed matches usually have a draw as a potential result, in addition to the win/loss or tie that can be achieved in limited overs cricket. First-class cricket consists of timed matches.
the art of striking the ball so that it hits the bat's sweet spot. A "well-timed" shot imparts great speed to the ball but appears effortless.
Ton (also century
100 runs scored by a single batsman in an innings.[1]
Top order 
the batsmen batting in the top 4 in the batting order. These are generally the most skilled batsmen in the team, equipped with the technique and temperament to continue batting for long periods, often for hours or even a whole day.
Top spin 
forward rotation on the ball, causing it to increase speed immediately after pitching.[8]
An organised itinerary of matches requiring travel away from the team's usual base. Used especially in international cricket to describe the representative team of one nation playing a series of matches in another nation.[35]
A member of a cricket team undertaking a tour.[35]
another term for the pitch.
a reliable, steady medium-pace bowler who is not especially good, but is not especially bad either.[1]
Twelfth man 
Traditionally, the first substitute player who fields when a member of the fielding side is injured. In Test matches, twelve players are named to a team prior to the match, with the final reduction to eleven occurring immediately prior to play commencing on the first day. This gives the captain some flexibility in team selection, dependent on the conditions (e.g. a spin bowler may be named to the team, but omitted if the captain feels that the pitch is not suitable for spin bowling).[1]
Twenty20 (or T20) 
a new, fast paced, form of cricket limited to twenty overs per innings, plus some other rules changes, specifically designed to broaden the appeal of the game.

[edit] U

one of the two (or three) enforcers of the laws[36] and adjudicators of play.
Umpire Decision Review System (UDRS, or simply Decision Review System or DRS) 
a system which allows the fielding captain or the batsmen to request the third umpire to review the standing umpires' previous decision using technological aids, in the hope of having a dismissal awarded (in the case of the fielding captain) or overturned (in the case of the batsman).
the action of bowling with the arm swinging from behind the body in a downswing arc and then releasing the ball on the up swing without bending the elbow. This type of bowling is now illegal in formal cricket, but commonly played in informal types of cricket. Compare with overarm.
Under-spin (also back-spin
backward rotation on the ball, causing it to decrease speed immediately after pitching.
  1. a shot played not in the accepted "textbook" manner, often with a degree of improvisation.
  2. a left arm spin bowler who spins the ball with his wrist. This imparts spin in the same direction as a right-handed off spin bowler. See: Left-arm unorthodox spin.
Unplayable delivery 
a ball that is impossible for the batsman to deal with; used to imply that the batsman was out more through the skill of the bowler than through his own error.
Upper Cut 
A typical shot play against short ball or bouncer. Here the batsmen makes a cut above his head and the usually goes to the third-man area.
A description of a shot that gains a risky amount of height, opening up the possibility of the batsman being caught.

[edit] V

  1. an unmarked, loosely defined V-shaped area on the ground at which the batsman stands at the apex. The two sides of the "V" go through the mid-off and mid-on regions. Most shots played into this region are straight-batted shots, which don't involve the risks associated with playing across the line.
  2. the V-shaped joint between the lower end of the handle and the blade of the bat (see also splice).
Village or Village cricket 
the kind of level of cricket played by the majority of the cricket-watching public. Traditionally applied pejoratively when the standard of play (particularly from professionals) is very low. e.g. "That shot/dropped catch/bowling was village"

[edit] W

A loose non-committal shot, usually played to a ball pitched short of length and well wide of the off stump.
when tail-enders score more runs than they are expected to (the tail wagged).
Wagon wheel 
a graphical chart that represents the trajectory of the ball from each scoring stroke, including its direction, distance travelled, and major bounces. When commentators so desire, various visual aids may be superimposed on the image, such as spokes dividing the field into sixty-degree sectors. Such displays give a quick appreciation of how actively a batsman has been scoring and shows the proportion of runs scored by strokes in each general direction.[12][37] The visual impression has been described as being like the spokes of a wagon style wheel). Because the length of a trajectory does not necessarily determine how many runs were scored of the stroke, each trajectory is colour-coded to indicate the number of runs scored off that stroke (1, 2, 3, 4, or 6).
of a batsman, to walk off the pitch, knowing or believing that he is out, rather than waiting for an umpire to give him out (forfeiting the chance that the umpire may give the benefit of the doubt regarding a dismissal if he is not certain that the batsman is out). Generally considered to be sporting behaviour though increasingly rare in international cricket.[1]
Walking wicket 
a very poor batsman, particularly tail-end batsmen, who are usually specialist bowlers. Statistically, any batsman averaging under 5. Also used to refer to a usually good batsman who is in very poor form.[citation needed]

Diagram of a wicket composed of stumps and bails – ball shown for scale
Wash out 
a cricket match, or a specific day of a cricket match, which is abandoned with either no play or very little play due to rain.
Wearing wicket 
On a turf pitch, typically consisting of dry/dead grass on the top, the soil can be loosened because of the players, stepping on it during play, and rough, abrasive patches can form. This means that as the pitch wears, or becomes worn, balls that land in these rough areas will grip the surface more and turn more drastically, thereby becoming more helpful to spin bowling. Uneven bounce can also result.
  1. a set of stumps and bails;
  2. the pitch; or
  3. the dismissal of a batsman.[1]
the player on the fielding side who stands immediately behind the batting end wicket. A specialist position, used throughout the game.[2]
a wicket-keeper who is also a very good batsman, capable of opening the batting or at least making good scores in the top order.
Wicket maiden 
a maiden over in which the bowler also dismisses a batsman. A double wicket maiden if two wickets are taken, and so on.[2]
an imaginary line connecting the two wickets, also a style of straight, un-varied bowling.
a delivery that passes illegally wide of the wicket, scoring an extra for the batting side. A wide does not count as one of the six valid deliveries that must be made in each over – an extra ball must be bowled for each wide.[1][2]
Without troubling the scorers 
see duck.
a bowler who consistently dismisses a certain batsman without being scored off substantially is said to "have the wood" over that player.
a plot of either the cumulative runs scored, or the progressive run rate achieved by a team (the y-axis) against the over number (x-axis) in limited-overs cricket.
Wrong foot 
when the bowling foot is the front foot the delivery is said to be bowled off the wrong foot. Such a bowler is said to bowl off the wrong foot.
Wrong footed 
when the batsman is initially moving either back or forward to a delivery and then has to suddenly change which foot he uses (back or front), he is said to have been wrong-footed. Usually applies to spin bowling.
Wrong 'un 
another name for a googly; most common in Australia.[1][3]

[edit] X

Xavier Tras 
or X.Tras. Slang for the total number of extras (sundries) in an innings.[citation needed]

[edit] Y

(The) Yips 
The Yips are occasionally experienced by bowlers suffering from a loss of confidence. A psychological condition whereby the bowler is unable to sufficiently relax when delivering the ball – often holding the ball too long before release, losing flight, turn and accuracy in the process. Bowlers have been known to suffer from The Yips for as little as a few overs, up to the course of an entire season or more.[1]
a (usually fast) delivery that is pitched very close to the batsman. The intent is for it to pitch exactly underneath his bat or on his toes, in the block hole. A perfectly-pitched fast yorker is almost impossible to keep out; a bad yorker can turn into a half-volley (too short) or a full toss (too full).[1]

[edit] Z

Zooter or Zoota 
a variation of the flipper bowled by a leg-break bowler. Typically 'Zoots' along the ground without much bounce. This ball is possibly a myth made up by Shane Warne to create confusion amongst opposition sides.[1]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz A glossary of cricket terms from CricInfo retrieved May 13, 2008
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Glossary of cricket terms from the England Cricket Board retrieved May 13, 2008
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Cricket Academy – Glossary from BBC News retrieved May 13, 2008
  4. ^ Eastaway, p. 1.
  5. ^ Booth, pp. 2–3
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Barclays World of Cricket – 2nd Edition, 1980, Collins Publishers, ISBN 0-00-216349-7, pp 636–643.
  7. ^ Booth, pp. 10–11
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Barclays World of Cricket – 3rd Edition, 1986, Guild Publishing/Willow Books (Collins), pp693–700.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Eastaway, p. 119.
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Eastaway, p. 120.
  12. ^ a b c Hawk-eye innovations
  13. ^,56,AR.html
  14. ^ ICC Official Website – International Twenty20 Regulations –
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ a b c d Eastaway, p. 121.
  18. ^ Williamson, Martin (20 May 2006). "The record that never was". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 13 Feb 2012.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Eastaway, p. 122.
  20. ^ Kirkpatrick, E. M., ed. (1983). Chambers 20th Century Dictionary (New Edition 1983 ed.). Edinburgh: W & R Chambers Ltd. pp. 296. ISBN 0550102345.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Eastaway, p. 123.
  23. ^ Independent 24 April 2005
  24. ^ Guardian: Mitchell Johnson is Australia's 'gun bowler'... 18 July 2009
  25. ^ 3 June 2009
  26. ^ The Ararat Advertiser (AU) 21 October 2008
  27. ^ South Coast Register (AU) 15 April 2009
  28. ^ Google
  29. ^ Off the mark definition
  30. ^ Smith and Ponting get their heads around referrals
  31. ^ Cricinfo
  32. ^ "Definition of stonewaller". The Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
  33. ^ "ICC to end Supersubs experiment". Cricinfo. February 15, 2006.
  34. ^ Saeed Ajmal's teasing teesra leaves England harried and hustled [2]. 17 January 2012.
  35. ^ a b The Wisden Dictionary of Cricket, Third edition, Michael Rundell, A & C Black, London, 2006
  36. ^ "Laws of Cricket - Laws & Spirit - Lord's". Retrieved 2011-06-16.
  37. ^ [3] A wagon wheel of Adam Gilchrist's innings of 102 not out, Australia v England, 3rd Test, Perth, December 16, 2006 from CricInfo retrieved May 11, 2008


Printed sources:
  • Eastaway, R. What is a Googly
  • Booth, Lawrence Arm-ball to Zooter. A sideways look at the language of cricket, pub. 2006, Penguin. ISBN 0-140-51581-X
  • Rundell, Michael The Wisden Dictionary of Cricket, Third edition, A & C Black, London, 2006. ISBN 0-7136-7915-8
  • Piesse, Ken the Extraordinary Book of Australian Cricket,Penguin,Australia.

Cricket World Cup

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ICC Cricket World Cup
Administrator International Cricket Council
Format One Day International
First tournament 1975, England
Last tournament 2011, Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka
Next tournament 2015, Australia and New Zealand
Tournament format multiple (refer to article)
Number of teams 19
Current champion  India (2 titles)
Most successful  Australia (4 titles)
Most runs India Sachin Tendulkar (2,278)
Most wickets Australia Glenn McGrath (71)
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of men's One Day International (ODI) cricket. The event is organised by the sport's governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), with preliminary qualification rounds leading up to a finals tournament which is held every four years. The tournament is the world's fourth-largest and fourth-most-viewed sporting event.[1][2] According to the ICC, it is the most important tournament and the pinnacle of achievement in the sport.[3][4] The first Cricket World Cup contest was organised in England in 1975. A separate Women's Cricket World Cup has been held every four years since 1973.
The finals of the Cricket World Cup are contested by all ten Test-playing and ODI-playing nations, together with other nations that qualify through the World Cup Qualifier. Australia has been the most successful of the five teams to have won the tournament, taking four titles. The West Indies and India have won twice, while Pakistan and Sri Lanka have each won once.
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was co-hosted by Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka from February 19 to April 2, 2011. 14 countries participated in the tournament. India won the cup by defeating Sri Lanka by 6 wickets in the final in Mumbai on 2 April and became the first team to win the World Cup final on home soil.[5]



[edit] History

[edit] Before the first Cricket World Cup

The first ever international cricket match was played between Canada and the United States, on the 24 and 25 September 1844. However, the first credited Test match was played in 1877 between Australia and England, and the two teams competed regularly for The Ashes in subsequent years. South Africa was admitted to Test status in 1889.[6] Representative cricket teams were selected to tour each other, resulting in bilateral competition. Cricket was also included as an Olympic sport at the 1900 Paris Games, where Great Britain defeated France to win the gold medal.[7] This was the only appearance of cricket at the Summer Olympics.
The first multilateral competition at international level was the 1912 Triangular Tournament, a Test cricket tournament played in England between all three Test-playing nations at the time: England, Australia and South Africa. The event was not a success: the summer was exceptionally wet, making play difficult on damp uncovered pitches, and attendances were poor, attributed to a "surfeit of cricket".[8] In subsequent years, international Test cricket has generally been organised as bilateral series: a multilateral Test tournament was not organised again until the quadrangular Asian Test Championship in 1999.
The number of nations playing Test cricket increased gradually over the years, with the addition of West Indies in 1928, New Zealand in 1930, India in 1932, and Pakistan in 1952, but international cricket continued to be played as bilateral Test matches over three, four or five days.
In the early 1960s, English county cricket teams began playing a shortened version of cricket which only lasted for one day. Starting in 1962 with a four-team knockout competition known as the Midlands Knock-Out Cup,[9] and continuing with the inaugural Gillette Cup in 1963, one-day cricket grew in popularity in England. A national Sunday League was formed in 1969. The first One-Day International event was played on the fifth day of a rain-aborted Test match between England and Australia at Melbourne in 1971, to fill the time available and as compensation for the frustrated crowd. It was a forty over match with eight balls per over.[10] In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket (WSC) competition, and it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, and, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, and on-screen graphics. The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. It was credited[by whom?] with making cricket a more professional sport. The success and popularity of the domestic one-day competitions in England and other parts of the world, as well as the early One-Day Internationals, prompted the ICC to consider organising a Cricket World Cup.[11]

[edit] Prudential World Cups

The Prudential Cup trophy
The inaugural Cricket World Cup was hosted in 1975 by England, the only nation able to put forward the resources to stage an event of such magnitude at that time. The 1975 tournament started on 7 June.[12] The first three events were held in England and officially known as the Prudential Cup after the sponsors Prudential plc. The matches consisted of 60 six-ball overs per team, played during the daytime in traditional form, with the players wearing cricket whites and using red cricket balls.[13]
Eight teams participated in the first tournament: Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the West Indies (the six Test nations at the time), together with Sri Lanka and a composite team from East Africa.[14] One notable omission was South Africa, who were banned from international cricket due to apartheid. The tournament was won by the West Indies, who defeated Australia by 17 runs in the final at Lord's.[14]
The 1979 World Cup saw the introduction of the ICC Trophy competition to select non-Test playing teams for the World Cup,[15] with Sri Lanka and Canada qualifying.[16] West Indies won a second consecutive World Cup tournament, defeating the hosts, England, by 92 runs in the final. At a meeting which followed the World Cup, the International Cricket Conference agreed to make the competition a quadrennial event.[16]
The 1983 event was hosted by England for a third consecutive time. By this time, Sri Lanka had become a Test-playing nation, and Zimbabwe qualified through the ICC Trophy. A fielding circle was introduced, 30 yards (27 m) away from the stumps. Four fieldsmen needed to be inside it at all times.[17] India, an outsider quoted at 66–1 to win by bookmakers before the competition began, were crowned champions after upsetting the West Indies by 43 runs in the final.[11][18]

[edit] 1987–1996

The 1987 tournament, named the Reliance World Cup after their Indian sponsors, was held in India and Pakistan, the first time that the competition was held outside England. The games were reduced from 60 to 50 overs per innings, the current standard, because of the shorter daylight hours in the Indian subcontinent compared with England's summer.[19] Australia won the championship by defeating England by 7 runs in the final, the closest margin in World Cup final history.[20][21]
The 1992 World Cup, held in Australia and New Zealand, introduced many changes to the game, such as coloured clothing, white balls, day/night matches, and an alteration to the fielding restrictions. The South African cricket team participated in the event for the first time, following the fall of the apartheid regime and the end of the international sports boycott.[22] Pakistan overcame a dismal start to emerge as winners, defeating England by 22 runs in the final.[23]
The 1996 championship was held in the Indian subcontinent for a second time, with the inclusion of Sri Lanka as host for some of its group stage matches.[24] In the semi-final, Sri Lanka, heading towards a crushing victory over India at Eden Gardens (Calcutta) after their hosts lost eight wickets while scoring 120 runs in pursuit of 254, were awarded victory by default after crowd unrest broke out in protest against the Indian performance.[25] Sri Lanka went on to win their maiden championship by defeating Australia by seven wickets in the final, which was held in Lahore.[26]

[edit] Australian treble

In 1999 the event was hosted by England, with some matches also being held in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and the Netherlands.[27][28] Australia qualified for the semi-finals after reaching their target in their Super 6 match against South Africa off the final over of the match.[29] They then proceeded to the final with a tied match in the semi-final (also against South Africa) where a mix-up between South African batsmen Lance Klusener and Allan Donald saw Donald drop his bat and stranded mid-pitch to be run out. In the final, Australia dismissed Pakistan for 132 and then reached the target in less than 20 overs, with eight wickets in hand.[30]
A large crowd of over 10,000 fans welcome the Australian team on completing the first World Cup hat-trick – Martin Place, Sydney.
South Africa, Zimbabwe and Kenya hosted the 2003 World Cup. The number of teams participating in the event increased from twelve to fourteen. Kenya's victories over Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe, among others – and a forfeit by the New Zealand team, which refused to play in Kenya because of security concerns – enabled Kenya to reach the semi-finals, the best result by an associate. In the final, Australia made 359 runs for the loss of two wickets, the largest ever total in a final, defeating India by 125 runs.[31][32]
In 2007 the tournament was hosted by the West Indies; the Cricket World Cup became the first such tournament to be hosted on all six populated continents.[33] Bangladesh progressed to the second round for the first time, after defeating India, and they later went on to defeat South Africa in the second round.[34] Ireland making their World Cup debut tied with Zimbabwe and defeated Pakistan to progress to the second round, where they went on to defeating Bangladesh to get promoted to the main ODI table.[35] Following their defeat to Ireland, the Pakistani coach Bob Woolmer was found dead in his hotel room; it was later found out that he died of heart failure,[36] though his death may not have been a direct result of the match's outcome. Australia defeated Sri Lanka in the final by 53 runs (D/L), in farcical light conditions, extending their undefeated run in the World Cup to 29 matches and winning three straight World Cups.[37]

[edit] 2011

The 2011 Cricket World Cup was jointly hosted by India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Pakistan were stripped of their hosting rights following the terrorist attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team, with the games originally scheduled for Pakistan redistributed to the other host countries.
The 2011 World Cup was the tenth edition of the tournament. Fourteen teams participated, split into two pools of seven teams each. The top four teams from each group qualified for the quarter-finals. India won their second World Cup title by beating Sri Lanka in the finals.

[edit] Future

The next World Cups will be hosted by Australia and New Zealand in 2015, and England and Wales in 2019.

[edit] Format

[edit] Qualification

The Test-playing nations qualify automatically for the World Cup main event, while the other teams have to qualify through a series of preliminary qualifying tournaments. The One Day International playing nations automatically enter the final qualification tournament, the World Cup Qualifier, along with other nations who have qualified through separate competitions.
Qualifying tournaments were introduced for the second World Cup, where two of the eight places in the finals were awarded to the leading teams in the ICC Trophy.[15] The number of teams selected through the ICC Trophy has varied throughout the years; currently, six teams are selected for the Cricket World Cup. The World Cricket League (administered by the International Cricket Council) is the qualification system provided to allow the Associate and Affiliate members of the ICC more opportunities to qualify.The name "ICC Trophy" has been changed to "ICC World Cup Qualifier".[38]
Under the current qualifying process, the World Cricket League, all 91 Associate and Affiliate members of the ICC are able to qualify for the World Cup. Associate and Affiliate members must play between two and five stages in the ICC World Cricket League to qualify for the World Cup finals, depending on the Division in which they start the qualifying process.
Process summary in chronological order:
  1. Regional tournaments: Top teams from each regional tournaments will be promoted to a division depending on the teams' rankings according to the ICC and each division's empty spots.
  2. Division One: 6 Teams – All automatically qualify for the World Cup Qualifier.
  3. Division Three: 6 Teams – Top 2 promoted to Division Two.
  4. Division Two: 6 Teams – Top 4 qualify for the World Cup Qualifier.
  5. Division Five: 6 Teams – Top 2 promoted to Division Four.
  6. Division Four: 6 Teams – Top 2 promoted to Division Three.
  7. Division Three (second edition): 6 Teams – Top 2 qualify for the World Cup Qualifier.
  8. World Cup Qualifier: 12 Teams – Top 6 are awarded ODI status and Top 4 qualify for the World Cup.

[edit] Tournament

The captains of the 2007 Cricket World Cup.
The format of the Cricket World Cup has changed greatly over the course of its history. Each of the first four tournaments was played by eight teams, divided into two groups of four.[39] There, competition comprised two stages, a group stage and a knock-out stage. The four teams in each group played each other in the round-robin group stage, with the top two teams in each group progressing to the semi-finals. The winners of the semi-finals played against each other in the final. With the return of South Africa in 1992 after the ending of the apartheid boycott, nine teams played each other once in the group phase, and the top four teams progressed to the semi-finals.[40] The tournament was further expanded in 1996, with two groups of six teams.[41] The top four teams from each group progressed to quarter-finals and semi-finals.
A new format was used for the 1999 and 2003 World Cups. The teams were split into two pools, with the top three teams in each pool advancing to the Super 6.[42] The "Super 6" teams played the three other teams that advanced from the other group. As they advanced, the teams carried their points forward from previous matches against other teams advancing alongside them, giving them an incentive to perform well in the group stages.[42] The top four teams from the "Super 6" stage progressed to the semi-finals, with winners playing in the final.
The last format used in the 2007 World Cup, features 16 teams allocated into four groups of four.[43] Within each group, the teams play each other in a round-robin format. Teams earn points for wins and half-points for ties. The top two teams from each group move forward to the Super 8 round. The "Super 8" teams play the other six teams that progressed from the different groups. Teams earned points in the same way as the group stage, but carrying their points forward from previous matches against the other teams who qualified from the same group to the "Super 8" stage.[44] The top four teams from the "Super 8" round advance to the semi-finals, and the winners of the semi-finals play in the final.
The current format, approved by ICC to be used in 2011 World Cup, features 14 teams allocated. Within each group, the teams will play in a round-robin format. The top four teams from each group will proceed to the knock out stage playing quarter-finals. Winners of the quarter-finals will play semi-finals and the winning semi-finalists will play in the final.

[edit] Trophy

The Cricket World Cup trophy which is kept by the ICC.
The ICC Cricket World Cup Trophy is presented to the winners of the World Cup finals. The current trophy was created for the 1999 championships, and was the first permanent prize in the tournament's history; prior to this, different trophies were made for each World Cup.[45] The trophy was designed and produced in London by a team of craftsmen from Garrard & Co over a period of two months.
The current trophy is made from silver and gild, and features a golden globe held up by three silver columns. The columns, shaped as stumps and bails, represent the three fundamental aspects of cricket: batting, bowling and fielding, while the globe characterises a cricket ball.[46] It stands 60 cm high and weighs approximately 11 kilograms. The names of the previous winners are engraved on the base of the trophy, with space for a total of twenty inscriptions.
The original trophy is kept by the ICC. A replica, which differs only in the inscriptions, is permanently awarded to the winning team.

[edit] Media coverage

The tournament is the world's third largest (with only the FIFA World Cup and the Summer Olympics exceeding it), being televised in over 200 countries to over 2.2 billion television viewers.[1][2][47][48] Television rights, mainly for the 2011 and 2015 World Cup, were sold for over US$1.1 billion,[49] and sponsorship rights were sold for a further US$500 million.[50] The 2003 Cricket World Cup matches were attended by 626,845 people,[51] while the 2007 Cricket World Cup sold more than 672,000 tickets and recorded the highest ticketing revenue for a Cricket World Cup.[52][53]
Successive World Cup tournaments have generated increasing media attention as One-Day International cricket has become more established. The 2003 World Cup in South Africa was the first to sport a mascot, Dazzler the zebra. An orange raccoon-like creature known as Mello was the mascot for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. Stumpy, a blue elephant was the mascot for the 2011 World Cup.[54]

[edit] Selection of hosts

Civic Centre, South Africa honours the 2003 World Cup.
The International Cricket Council's executive committee votes for the hosts of the tournament after examining the bids made by the nations keen to hold a Cricket World Cup.[55]
England hosted the first three competitions. The ICC decided that England should host the first tournament because it was ready to devote the resources required to organising the inaugural event.[12] India volunteered to host the third Cricket World Cup, but most ICC members believed England to be a more suitable venue because the longer period of daylight in England in June[56] meant that a match could be completed in one day.[57] The 1987 Cricket World Cup was the first hosted outside England, held in Pakistan and India.
Many of the tournaments have been jointly hosted by nations from the same geographical region, such as South Asia in 1987, 1996 and 2011, Australasia in 1992, Southern Africa in 2003 and West Indies in 2007.

[edit] Tournament history

[edit] Performances by teams

Map of each nation's best results
Nineteen nations have qualified for the finals of the Cricket World Cup at least once (excluding qualification tournaments). Seven teams have competed in every finals tournament, five of which have won the title.[11] The West Indies won the first two tournaments, and Australia has won four, India has won two, while Pakistan and Sri Lanka have each won once. The West Indies (1975 and 1979) and Australia (1999, 2003 and 2007) are the only nations to have won consecutive titles.[11] Australia has played in 6 of the 10 final matches (1975, 1987, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2007). England has yet to win the World Cup, but has been runners-up three times (1979, 1987, 1992). The best result by a non-Test playing nation is the semi-final appearance by Kenya in the 2003 tournament; while the best result by a non-Test playing team on their debut is the Super 8 (second round) by Ireland in 2007.[11]
Sri Lanka, who co-hosted the 1996 Cricket World Cup, was the first host to win the tournament, though the final was held in Pakistan.[11] India won the 2011 as host and was the first team to win in a final played in their own country.[58] Other countries which have achieved or equalled their best World Cup results while co-hosting the tournament are New Zealand, semi-finalists in 1992; Zimbabwe, reaching the Super Six in 2003; and Kenya, semi-finalists in 2003.[11] In 1987, co-hosts India and Pakistan both reached the semi-finals, but were eliminated by Australia and England respectively.[11]

[edit] Entrants

Year Teams
1975 8 teams
1979 8 teams
1983 8 teams
1987 8 teams
1992 9 teams
1996 12 teams
1999 12 teams
2003 14 teams
2007 16 teams
2011 14 teams
2015 14 teams
2019 TBD

[edit] Debutant teams

Year Teams
1975  Australia, East Africa,  England,  India,  New Zealand,  Pakistan,  Sri Lanka,  West Indies
1979  Canada
1983  Zimbabwe
1987 none
1992  South Africa
1996  Kenya,  Netherlands,  United Arab Emirates
1999  Bangladesh,  Scotland
2003  Namibia
2007  Bermuda,  Ireland
2011 none

[edit] Overview

The table below provides an overview of the performances of teams over past World Cups, as of the end of the 2011 tournament. Teams are sorted by best performance, then total number of wins, then total number of games, then by alphabetical order.
Team Appearances Best result Statistics
Total First Latest Played Won Lost Tie NR
 Australia 10 1975 2011 Champions (1987, 1999, 2003, 2007) 76 55 19 1 1
 India 10 1975 2011 Champions (1983, 2011) 67 39 26 1 1
 West Indies 10 1975 2011 Champions (1975, 1979) 64 38 25 0 1
 Pakistan 10 1975 2011 Champions (1992) 64 36 26 0 2
 Sri Lanka 10 1975 2011 Champions (1996) 66 31 31 1 2
 England 10 1975 2011 Runners-up (1979, 1987, 1992) 66 39 25 1 1
 New Zealand 10 1975 2011 Semifinals (1975, 1979, 1992, 1999, 2007, 2011) 70 40 29 0 1
 South Africa 6 1992 2011 Semifinals (1992, 1999, 2007) 47 31 14 2 0
 Kenya 5 1996 2011 Semifinals (2003) 29 6 22 0 1
 Zimbabwe 8 1983 2011 Super Six (1999, 2003) 51 10 37 1 3
 Bangladesh 4 1999 2011 Super 8 (2007) 26 8 17 0 1
 Ireland 2 2007 2011 Super 8 (2007) 15 4 10 1 0
 Canada 4 1979 2011 Group Stage 18 2 16 0 0
 Netherlands 4 1996 2011 Group Stage 20 2 18 0 0
 United Arab Emirates 1 1996 1996 Group Stage 5 1 4 0 0
 Bermuda 1 2007 2007 Group Stage 3 0 3 0 0
 Namibia 1 2003 2003 Group Stage 6 0 6 0 0
 Scotland 2 1999 2007 Group Stage 8 0 8 0 0
East Africa 1 1975 1975 Group Stage 3 0 3 0 0
No longer exists.

[edit] Team results

Comprehensive team results of over past World Cups.
Team 1975 1979 1983 1987 1992 1996 1999 2003 2007 2011
England England England India
New Zealand
Sri Lanka
England South Africa West Indies Cricket Board India
Sri Lanka
 Australia 2nd R1 R1 1st R1 2nd 1st 1st 1st QF

R1 R1 S8 R1


R1 R1 R1
East Africa R1

 England SF 2nd SF 2nd 2nd QF R1 R1 S8 QF
 India R1 R1 1st SF R1 SF S6 2nd R1 1st

S8 R1

R1 R1 SF R1 R1



R1 R1 R1
 New Zealand SF SF R1 R1 SF QF SF S6 SF SF
 Pakistan R1 SF SF SF 1st QF 2nd R1 R1 SF

 South Africa

 Sri Lanka R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 1st R1 SF 2nd 2nd
 United Arab Emirates


 West Indies 1st 1st 2nd R1 R1 SF R1 R1 S8 QF

R1 R1 R1 R1 S6 S6 R1 R1
No longer exists.

[edit] Legend

  • Runners Up
  • SF – Semi-finals
  • S8 – Super Eight (2007 only)
  • S6 – Super Six (1999–2003)
  • QF – Quarter-finals (1996 & 2011)
  • R1 – First Round

[edit] Awards

[edit] Man of the Tournament

Since 1992, one player has been declared as "Man of the Tournament" at the end of the World Cup finals:[59]
Year Player Performance details
1992 New Zealand Martin Crowe 456 runs
1996 Sri Lanka Sanath Jayasuriya 221 runs and 7 wickets
1999 South Africa Lance Klusener 281 runs and 17 wickets
2003 India Sachin Tendulkar 673 runs and 2 wickets
2007 Australia Glenn McGrath 26 wickets
2011 India Yuvraj Singh 362 runs and 15 wickets

[edit] Man of the Match in the World Cup Final

Previously, there was no tournament award, although Man of the Match awards have always been given for individual matches. Winning the Man of the Match in the final is logically noteworthy, as this indicates the player deemed to have played the biggest part in the World Cup final. To date the award has always gone to a member of the winning side. The Man of the Match award in the final of the competition has been awarded to:[59]
Year Player Performance details
1975 West Indies Cricket Board Clive Lloyd 102 runs
1979 West Indies Cricket Board Viv Richards 138*
1983 India Mohinder Amarnath 3/12 and 26
1987 Australia David Boon 75 runs
1992 Pakistan Wasim Akram 33 and 3/49
1996 Sri Lanka Aravinda de Silva 107* and 3/42
1999 Australia Shane Warne 4/33
2003 Australia Ricky Ponting 140*
2007 Australia Adam Gilchrist 149
2011 India Mahendra Singh Dhoni 91*

[edit] Tournament records

[edit] Main individual and team records

Sachin Tendulkar, the leading run-scorer in World Cup history.
World Cup records[60]
Most runs India Sachin Tendulkar 2278 (19922011)
Highest average (min. 20 inns.) West Indies Cricket Board Viv Richards 63.31 (19751987)
Highest score South Africa Gary Kirsten v UAE 188* (1996)
Highest partnership IndiaSourav Ganguly & Rahul Dravid
(2nd wicket) v Sri Lanka
318 (1999)
Most runs in a tournament India Sachin Tendulkar 673 (2003)
Most wickets Australia Glenn McGrath 71 (19962007)
Lowest average (min. 1000 balls bowled) Australia Glenn McGrath 19.21 (19962007)
Best bowling figures Australia Glenn McGrath v Namibia 7/15 (2003)
Most wickets in a tournament Australia Glenn McGrath 26 (2007)
Most dismissals (wicket-keeper) Australia Adam Gilchrist 39 (19992007)
Most catches (fielder) Australia Ricky Ponting 28 (19962011)
Highest score  India v Bermuda 413/5 (2007)
Lowest score  Canada v Sri Lanka 36 (2003)
Highest win % Australia Australia 74% (Played 76, Won 55)
Most consecutive wins Australia Australia 26 (19992011)
Most consecutive tournament wins Australia Australia 3 (19992007)[61]

Blind cricket

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  (Redirected from Blind Cricket)
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Blind cricket is a version of the sport of cricket adapted for blind and partially sighted players. It has governed by the World Blind Cricket Council (WBCC) since 1996. So far, three Blind World Cups have been held, New Delhi, India (1998); Chennai, India (2002) and Islamabad, Pakistan (2006).



[edit] History

The sport has been played since the 1920s.

[edit] Within the United Kingdom

The founding members of the British Blind Sport organization were cricketers, and the association is the administrative body for the sport within the United Kingdom.

[edit] UK rules

Blind cricket being played at the County Ground, Hove
The rules of blind cricket are based on the standard Laws of cricket with some essential modifications.
In terms of playing equipment, the major adaptation is the ball, which is significantly larger than a standard cricket ball and filled with ball bearings. The size allows partially sighted players to see the ball and the contents allow blind players to hear it. The wicket (stumps) is also larger, to allow partially sighted players to see and blind players to touch it in order to correctly orient themselves when batting or bowling.
Various other modifications to the rules apply. Verbal signals are widely used both by umpires and players: in particular, the bowler must shout 'Play!' as he releases the ball. The delivery is required to pitch at least twice when bowled to a completely blind batsman (once when bowled to a partially sighted batsman), but must not be rolling. Totally blind batsmen cannot be out stumped, and must be found to be LBW twice before going out. Totally blind fielders are allowed to take a catch on the bounce.

[edit] Competitions

[edit] United Kingdom

Two domestic competitions are run: the two-division BBS Cricket League, based around single-innings matches played around the country throughout the cricket season; and the BBS Primary Club National Knockout Cup, a knockout competition of limited-overs matches held each August at Lord's Cricket Ground.

[edit] Australia

Blind cricket is widely played in Australia, with teams playing regular fixtures in the states of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia, as well as in the Australian Capital Territory. Every two years State cricket teams meet for the Australian Blind Cricket Championships. The 31st National Blind Cricket Championships will be held in Queensland in 2012.

[edit] United Kingdom v Australia

The first Blind Cricket Ashes competition was held in England in August 2004. 5 matches were played, with England winning the Ashes by 3 games to 2. A return series of 5 matches was held in Sydney, Australia, in December 2008. The series results show another victory for England, winning 3-0. England won the first, third and fourth matches, with the second rained out, and the final match a surprising 331 run draw.

[edit] Organisations

[edit] Victorian Blind Cricket Association (VBCA)

The Victorian Blind Cricket Association (VBCA) is the home of blind cricket in Victoria. Blind cricket was invented in Melbourne in 1922. The world's first sports ground and clubhouse for blind people was developed at Kooyong Kooyong, Victoria, Melbourne in 1928 and is still used today as the home of the VBCA.
The Association now has four clubs and approximately 70 vision impaired and blind members and several volunteers.
Current clubs:
  • Burwood Blind Cricket Club
  • Glenferrie Lions Blind Cricket Club
  • Institute Blind Cricket Club
  • St. Paul's Blind Cricket Club
The Victorian Blind Cricket Association is located in the Charlie Bradley Pavilion, at the rear of 454 Glenferrie Road, Kooyong VIC 3144 (opposite the Kooyong Tennis Stadium Kooyong Stadium). Games are played on Saturday afternoons from October through to March and spectators are most welcome.
The VBCA provides an important role in the community by developing and providing opportunities for people who are blind or vision impaired to enjoy the recreational and social benefits of cricket. Additionally, the VBCA participates in cricket matches against sighted opposition in keeping with the philosophy of integration and working to remove barriers and isolating influences of having limited vision.
The ongoing aims and objectives of the VBCA are as follows:
  • To further promote the game of Blind Cricket in Victoria
  • Provides sport, fitness, and physical recreation opportunities for individuals of all ages who are legally blind
  • Aims to improve the physical capabilities and self-confidence of individuals who are blind, visually impaired

[edit] Blind Cricket New South Wales (BCNSW)

Blind Cricket New South Wales (BCNSW) is the home of blind cricket in New South Wales.

[edit] World Blind Cricket Council (WBCC)

The WBCC was established in 1996 during an international cricket meeting held in New Delhi, India in September 1996. The WBCC was set up with the objective of promoting and administering the game of blind cricket globally. Today the WBCC has 10 full members namely Australia, New Zealand, England, South Africa, West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal. George Abraham of India is the founding Chairman of the WBCC. Under his leadership, the inaugural Blind Cricket World Cup was held in New Delhi in November 1998. Seven countries participated. South Africa defeated Pakistan in the final while India and Australia were the two semi-finalists.
The second Blind Cricket World Cup was held in Chennai, India in December 2002. Pakistan defeated South Africa in the finals.
Peter Donovan of Australia took over as Chairman in 2004.
Pakistan hosted the third World Cup in Islamabad 2006 under the able leadership of Aga Shaukat-Ali, President of Pakistan Blind Cricket Council. Pakistan beat India in the final.
In November 2008, George Abraham was re-elected as President of the WBCC.

[edit] Cricket Association for the Blind in India [CABI]

Starting 2011, Cricket Association for the Blind in India [CABI] is in place of Association for Cricket for the Blind India (ACBI) set up in 1996. George Abraham is the founder of the registered voluntary body. Its objectives are to use competitive cricket to teach the blind to look at life positively, gain in confidence and strive to be winners rather than dependents; and to use the game as a medium to transmit the message of ability and talent to the society. The ACBI organised the first two Blind Cricket World Cups in 1998 and 2002.
CABI is the apex body that organizes and conducts cricket for blind across India. CABI is a sports initiative of Samarthanam Trust for the Disabled. It is a registered Non Profit Organization, affiliated to the World Blind Cricket Council (WBCC). Conferred the hosting rights of the First Ever T – 20 World Cup in Bangalore in November /December 2012.

Comparison of cricket and baseball

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Cricket and baseball are the best-known members of a family of related bat-and-ball games.
Despite their similarities, the two sports also have many differences in play and in strategy. A comparison between cricket and baseball can be instructive to followers of either sport, since the similarities help to highlight nuances particular to each game.



[edit] Bat-and-ball games

Bat-and-ball games, in general, are sports in which one team (the fielding team) has possession of the ball and delivers it to a member of the other team (the batting team), who tries to hit it. The two opposing teams take turns playing these two distinct roles, which are continuous during a specified interval. This contrasts with "goal-oriented" games, such as all forms of football, hockey and basketball, in which possession of the ball or puck can change in an instant, and thus "attackers" and the "defenders" frequently reverse roles during the course of the game.
In both cricket and baseball, the players of one team attempt to score points known as runs by hitting a ball with a bat, while the members of the other team field the ball in an attempt to prevent scoring and to put batting players out.
In both games, there is a defensive aspect to the batting team concurrent with its "offensive" or "attacking" aspect of trying to score runs. In cricket, the batsman is attempting to defend the wicket. In baseball, the batter is attempting to defend the strike zone. In practice, however, the terms "offense" and "defense" are not normally used in cricket parlance, compared to their more frequent use in baseball.
Once a certain number of batting players are out (different in the two sports), the teams swap roles. This sequence of each team taking each role once is called an inning in baseball, and an innings in cricket (the singular form having a terminal 's'). The single/plural usage in cricket is comparable to the baseball slang term for a single inning as the team's "ups". A baseball game consists of nine innings, while a cricket match may have either one or two innings per team.
Other present-day bat-and-ball games include softball, stickball, rounders, stoolball, pes├Ąpallo or Finnish baseball, punchball, kickball, and British baseball, which has similarities with both cricket and baseball. Earlier forms include The Massachusetts Game of baseball, which was similar to rounders, and one old cat and two old cat.

[edit] Field

Minimum and example baseball and cricket field dimensions compared at the same scale.
Main articles: Baseball field, Cricket field, Cricket pitch

[edit] Baseball

A view of the playing field at Fenway Park in Boston.
Baseball is played in a quadrant of fair territory between foul lines. The official minimum distance from home plate to the far edge of fair territory is 250 feet (76.2 m), but the recommended distances are at least 325 feet (99 m) along the foul lines and 400 feet (120 m) in center field.[1] This produces a recommended fair territory field area just over 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2). Most Major League Baseball parks have fair territory areas in the range of 110,000 to 120,000 square feet (10,000 to 11,000 m2).[2]

[edit] Cricket

In contrast, Test and One Day International cricket is played on a field with a minimum width of 420 feet (128.0 m) and length 426 feet (129.8 m), giving a minimum area of 140,500 square feet (13,050 m2), assuming an elliptical shape. However the shape of a cricket ground is not fixed. Test grounds around the world are typically 450 by 500 feet (140 by 150 m), an area of 175,000 square feet (16,300 m2), and range up to the Melbourne Cricket Ground at 479 by 561 feet (146.0 by 171.0 m) or 270,000 square feet (25,000 m2).

[edit] Consequences

Discounting the pitcher/bowler and catcher/wicket-keeper, this means Major League Baseball fielders must cover an average of approximately 16,500 square feet (1,530 m2) per fielder, while Test cricketers cover 19,500 square feet (1,810 m2) per fielder. That average is misleading because the difference between area covered on the parts of outfielders (on the one hand) and infielders (on the other), is vast. In baseball, infielders cover a small area in which the ball moves very fast, while three outfielders must cover an area that encompasses a much greater proportion of the playing surface. Something similar — if not quite as pronounced — is true in cricket. In practice, fielders in both sports cover variable amounts of territory, with outfielders potentially having to run much farther to field a ball than infielders do.
Another consequence is that the maximum distance from the batsman in cricket to the boundary is far smaller than the maximum distance from the batter in baseball and the outfield wall. Since the pitch in cricket lies at the center of the field, a ball can often be driven beyond the boundary at even the greatest distance from the pitch by a blow that travels around 275 feet (83.8 m). By contrast, a home run to 'dead center' in baseball must travel more than 400 feet (121.9 m). This means that outfielders in baseball must frequently cover considerably greater distances than those fielding a ball in cricket. When hit squarely in baseball the ball leaves the bat at a higher velocity, and travels farther, than in cricket.
A batsman in cricket has a greater variety of strokes he can play, due to the lack of fouls and strikes; this combined with the shape of the field means he can play shots in any direction, including directly behind him.

[edit] Bowling/Pitching distance

In cricket, the distance between the two wickets that the batsmen defend is 22 yards (20.1 m), 66 feet, or 1 chain (4 rods) in the old English system of measurement. The rectangular area between the two lines is called the pitch. In baseball, the pitcher must deliver from a rubber slab (officially called the "pitcher's plate" and typically called "the rubber") whose front is 60.5 feet (18.4 m) from the point of home plate (officially called "home plate" and often simply "home"). Before the advent of the pitcher's mound and the rubber, the pitcher threw from within a rectangular "pitcher's box". There was a large rectangular dirt area, between the pitcher's box and the batting areas around home, which resembled the cricket pitch.
In cricket, the striker's end stumps and the bowling crease are 66 feet (20.12 m) apart. The popping creases are 4 feet (1.22 m) in front of the stumps and thus are 58 feet (17.7 m) feet apart. The bowler's release point could be perhaps 1 foot (0.30 m) beyond his popping crease. The batsman tends to "take guard" or "block" on the popping crease, i.e. he stands 4 feet (1.22 m) in front of his stumps. That nets to a typical distances of about 57 feet (17.4 m) between delivery point and bat. In baseball, the pitcher's release point could be about 55 feet (16.8 m) depending on his delivery style, but the batter also tends to stand back or "deep" in the batter's box, to maximize his time to "look the ball over", up to 2 feet (0.61 m) farther from the pitching rubber than the point of home plate is. Although the delivery distance, from release of the ball by the pitcher/bowler to its arrival at the batter/batsman, appears to be similar in both sports, the ball actually travels further in cricket as it bounces off the ground first.

[edit] Play

[edit] Fielding

Main articles: Baseball positions, Baseball positioning, Fielding (cricket)
The main difference from fielding in the two sports is that even though a cricket ball is harder and heavier than a baseball the fielders in cricket are more restricted in the use of protection for the hands. The only fielders who can wear protective gear are the wicket-keeper, who is allowed to wear padded gloves as well as leg guards and a box; and fieldsmen in close-in positions such as silly point and short leg, who may wear shinpads, boxes and helmets but they are still not allowed to wear any gloves. In baseball, catchers and first basemen normally wear mitts, which have no fingers and are specially designed for each position respectively. The other fielders wear gloves with fingers. (Note that early baseball was also played bare-handed; gloves were adopted in the latter 19th Century.) This means that the risk of hand injury due the impact of the ball is far higher in cricket. Also, especially in Test cricket, it is common for several fielders to be stationed close to the bat (slips, short leg, silly point and similar positions) since the value of dismissing a batsman off a catch is higher. Catching at these positions require exceptional reflexes, skill and courage, associated with bare-handed catching of a hard ball traveling at up to 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), with reaction times of the order of 0.2 seconds.
Baseball games have far lower scores than cricket matches. The largest combined runs total in a single game in the history of Major League Baseball is 49, whereas first-class cricket matches, including Tests, have produced combined totals from both innings of over a thousand runs.
For a more direct comparison, matches in Twenty20 cricket, a form of limited overs cricket in which games last about as long in time as a regulation baseball game, regularly produce combined run totals of 300 or more, with the all-time record being 443. Each run in a baseball game is roughly seventy-five times the magnitude of a run in a Test cricket match; therefore moments of poor pitching and individual fielding mistakes are much more costly. A player who is a good batter, but who is not a competent fielder, will not play regularly, or only in the designated hitter position in leagues that use it.
Navy shortstop Nick Driscoll catches throw from Navy catcher Steve Soares and tries to tag out a runner who is sliding headfirst, attempting to reach second base during the annual Service Academy Spring Classic baseball tournament.
Baseball players often need to throw immediately after catching the struck ball (for example, the double play), while this is unnecessary in cricket as the ball is deemed "dead" when a dismissal takes place. Hence, fielders in Cricket have a greater incentive to dive and take a catch due to the fact that a run out is much harder to achieve.
India's Mahendra Singh Dhoni successfully stumps a South African batsman out during a match played in Chennai in 2008.
The configuration of the baseball diamond effectively bars left-handers from the fielding positions that make throwing to first base a primary responsibility. Right-handers can throw to their left — i.e., toward first base — with much greater ease than can left-handers, so virtually all second basemen, shortstops, and third basemen are right-handed. Left-handed catchers are also exceedingly rare; while the reasons appear to be primarily cultural, handling bunts up the third-base line and throws on plays at home pose particular obstacles to left-handed catchers.[3]
While most throws a first baseman must make go to the right, which a left-hander can generally accomplish with greater speed and fluency, this is a relatively small factor in the advantage for left-handed first baseman. More important advantages are related to the position of a left-handed first baseman with respect to the base. First, a left-handed first baseman has an advantage over his right-handed counterpart when catching a pickoff throw from the pitcher—when a first baseman is in pickoff position, standing in front of the bag, the left-hander can catch the ball and make a tag without having to move his arm across his body. (See the picture in the Strategy over the course of the game section below for the standard pickoff position with a right-handed first baseman.) Second, because the first baseman starts most plays with his left leg closer to the base, the left-hander does not have to make a half-pivot in order to get into the correct position to stretch out for a throw. For these reasons, left-handed throwers are far more common at first base than in the general population of baseball players. In contrast, cricket is fielded in the round: the handedness of the fielder in any given position is of far less consequence due to the priority being placed on catching rather than throwing, and both left-handed and right-handed throwers are found in all parts of the field.
A One Day International cricket match in progress at Eden Park. The lighter strip is the cricket pitch.
Body contact between runner and fielder is frequent in baseball, particularly at home plate. This is driven to a large extent by the manner in which a runner is put out. In both sports, rules prohibit interfering with runners. However, in baseball, the runner himself (or the base he is advancing to, if forced) must be tagged by a fielder holding the ball, in order to be put out. The catcher awaiting a throw will often stand between the plate and the runner. Once he catches it, the runner might try to go around the catcher, or he might simply bowl the catcher over, if he thinks he can dislodge the ball by such contact; and if the catcher does not have the ball, the runner may still bowl the catcher over, which is considered fair because by rule a fielder without a ball cannot impede a runner. By contrast, in cricket, the stumps are the target for "tagging" rather than the runner. No contact of the runners is either necessary or allowed. Contact between opposing sides is rare, and is usually not deliberate. Violent contact between players was once even greater in baseball, as before the Knickerbocker Rules it was permitted in some versions of the game to literally "throw out" a runner by hitting him (or "soaking" him) with a thrown ball (in lieu of hitting a base or stake that would equate to cricket's wickets). This rule still exists in some versions of the baseball variant called kickball, which is played with a soccer ball and thus is much less injurious. Kickball also calls for literal "bowling" of the ball, underhand, as with the old rules of both cricket and baseball.

[edit] Batting

Main articles: Batting (cricket), Batting (baseball)
There are many possibilities for a batsman in cricket.
One of the main differences between baseball and Test cricket is the primary intent of the batsman. Usually, in Test cricket, wickets come at a far higher premium, since survival is of primary importance. While nine innings are played in a baseball game within a few hours, only two are played in Test cricket over five days (thirty hours), so the cost of a dismissal is far higher in cricket. It should be kept in mind that a batsman in cricket is not obligated to take a run after striking the ball nor is there any penalty for swinging at the ball and missing unless it hits the stumps, and there is no limit to the number of deliveries a batsmen can face. Therefore a batsman with the concentration and technical ability to bat for several hours without being dismissed is able to do. So the quality of his defensive game is of the utmost importance. The nuances of batting technique are also greater in cricket, since the interplays between bowling variations, field placements and scoring strengths are more dynamic. Since cricket is played over an extended duration, it gives the bowler and the fielding captain time to "work over" a batsman. Thus, cricket batting requires a very tight technique and the ability to withstand sustained examinations.
The area for legal deliveries is much larger in Cricket than it is in baseball, overlapping the batsman's entire body. Deliveries that reach the batsmen at rib or shoulder height are not illegal, and quite common. Depending on the version of the game, a greater or fewer number of deliveries can be bowled to reach the batsmen at throat or head level. Any fear or hesitation can lead to a batsman playing a poor shot and giving away his wicket (being dismissed).
Since the cricket bat is wide and flat, while the baseball bat is narrow and round, on the whole cricket batsmen find it easier to hit and direct the ball than baseball batters, resulting in much greater number of runs being scored in a cricket match. While bowlers can influence the ability of the batsmen to do so, perhaps the most famous episode being the now-banned Bodyline tactic, cricket batsmen are able to use a wider variety of batting strokes to direct the ball in many directions into a field which provides much more open space than in baseball. In addition, cricket batsmen are under no obligation to attempt to score a run after any stroke, but must strike balls in order to prevent them from hitting the wicket. Many strokes are in fact defensive in nature against a well-bowled ball and the quality of defensive batting is often the determining factor of a batsman's success over his career, especially in the longer forms of the game.
The follow-through in the baseball swing of Barry Bonds.
By contrast, the balance of power is largely reversed in baseball. While particularly skilled batters have some ability to place hit and direct the ball to desired locations, the pitcher's influence is much more dramatic. Pitchers induce more ground outs, fly outs, or strikeouts, depending on the style of pitch. Thus particular pitchers are known for causing batters to make certain kinds of outs, depending on their mastered pitches. Also in contrast to cricket, baseball batters must attempt to take first base on any ball put into fair territory, and failing to do so will result in an out, but the size of the strike zone more strictly limits the set of deliveries that must be swung at compared to cricket. Like cricket, baseball batters do have a defensive tactic available; many batters will often attempt to deliberately foul off pitches that are strikes yet difficult to hit well, by hitting them into foul territory, awaiting an easier delivery later in the at-bat. Since an uncaught foul ball cannot be a third strike (unless it was a bunt attempt), this tactic allows the batter to receive more pitches.
Ricky Ponting swings with a pull shot towards mid wicket region in this picture.
In the early generations of baseball, the emphasis was mostly on bat control, place hitting, bunting, etc., and that is still true for the most part today. An accomplished hitter must know how to bunt, 'serve' a pitch down the line or over the infield, collapse his hands and go the other way, pull in his hands in order to turn on the ball inside, and so on. But, starting in 1919, several factors resulted in a dramatic expansion of strategic orientation, supplementing traditional "small ball" with the "power game": a "livelier" ball, because of better materials and a tighter weave; more frequent substitutions of new balls; lighter, more flexible bats; the outlawing of the spitball; and the increase in attendance which drove owners to build more outfield seating, thus reducing the outfield area significantly. The power game has been encouraged further in recent years, by the construction of new ballparks with smaller outfields than previously, and even the reduction of field size at "classic" ballparks known for spacious outfields; for example, the distance to the fence in deep left field at the original Yankee Stadium was reduced from 430 to 399 feet (130 to 122 m) between 1984 and 1988 (the post-1988 dimensions were maintained at the current Yankee Stadium). Still, it is generally agreed that no one can hit a home run at will, and every successful batter knows never to go to the plate intending to hit a home run. Rather, he should attempt a level swing, try to pull only the ball on the inside of the plate, go the other way with balls low and outside, and otherwise start each at bat intending to drive the ball up the middle, which is the most vulnerable part of the infield (especially if the pitcher is not particularly good at fielding his position).
The games emphasize power hitting to different degrees. Cricket requires the accumulation of large numbers of runs, so placement of the ball between the fielders produces runs efficiently and is generally accepted as a better strategy than "swinging for sixes". In baseball, power hitting can produce runs quickly and frequently in many situations[citation needed], as well as force pitching changes and other fielding moves; but it can also result (because of the great difficulty of driving a ball off a cylindrical bat) in a great many strike outs, fly outs, and ground outs. "Manufacturing runs" or "small ball" is still the soundest means for scoring runs against good pitching and defense. Teams with winning records are those that combine deep pitching and defense with a good balance of small ball and power hitting. In most game situations, the classic methods for manufacturing runs are the most successful. The final play of the 2001 World Series was a flare single to drive in the winning run. Batter Luis Gonzalez, a power hitting outfielder, stated in the Series DVD commentary that he choked up on the bat and went for a single, a small ball strategy with a much greater likelihood of success than "swinging for the fences". In cricket, however, situations can arise in a match where power hitting, also called "slogging", is required. This typically occurs towards the final overs of a limited overs game. So, though baseball is the game that features more power hitting, as a strategy there are far fewer situations in baseball in which it would be correct to rely on the power game.

[edit] Bowling/pitching

A baseball
A cricket ball
Main articles: pitching (baseball) and bowling (cricket)
Cricket bowlers, since they are not restricted to a small strike zone as their target, also use a wide variety of approaches which are not available to baseball pitchers. These involve varying the line and length of deliveries and using unpredictable movement caused by the ball bouncing on the pitch before it reaches the batsman. Baseball pitchers, by contrast, must use changes in ball speed and movement (cricket bowlers also vary ball speed) caused only by air friction and spin to deceive batters, as most pitches which come near touching the ground are ineffectively allowed to pass as balls. The raised undulating stitching on a baseball allows an accomplished pitcher to create a huge variety of motions in the air; even fastballs are thrown in such a way as to create certain kinds of movement. The cricket ball also moves in the air, to a lesser degree than the baseball, but it achieves its most pronounced movement on the bounce. Furthermore, pitchers must begin their throw from a stationary position, while bowlers may run up to their delivery. (In the early days of baseball, the pitcher pitched from anywhere within a "box" and so had more flexibility as to where to stand when releasing the ball, before the 1880s.) Baseball pitchers also throw from an elevated mound (10 in or 25 cm above the level of home plate), while cricket bowlers are at the same height as the batsman and must bowl with an overarm (or roundarm, a style rarely seen today) rotation of the arm during which the arm must be kept straight within 15 degrees. (This was also a restriction on pitchers in the early days of baseball, abolished in the 1880s.) Despite the differences in delivery action, the delivery speeds are similar for both sports with the fastest bowlers and pitchers propelling the ball in the region of 95–100 mph (150–160 km/h): the fastest recorded cricket delivery is 100.2 mph (161.26 km/h)[4][5] with baseball's record quicker at 105 mph (169.0 km/h).[6] It is the case, however, that baseball pitches near or at 100 mph are considerably more common than bowled balls of comparable velocity in cricket. The bowler in cricket is much more restricted as far as how much he can bend his arm in delivering the ball, and this is one very significant reason why baseball pitchers can deliver the ball faster with more frequency.
One main difference, however, is that the ball in cricket is harder and heavier in weight. The legal weight for the ball in baseball must weigh between 5 to 5.25 ounces (142 to 149 g). Whereas, the ball in cricket must weigh between 5.5 to 5.8 ounces (156 to 164 g).
Another reason for the difference in pace is also the fact that in baseball the ball reaches the batter on the full, whereas in cricket most of the time the ball is bounced off the pitch before reaching the batsman which does take pace off the ball.
Cricket's bowlers are grouped into different categories based on their bowling style—pacemen, seamers, off-spinners (or finger-spinners), leg-spinners (or wrist-spinners)—though a bowler may fall into more than one category (pace and seam bowling, for instance, largely overlap).
The typical bowling action of a fast bowler.
The typical motion of a baseball pitcher throwing from a set position.
Baseball's pitchers are classified primarily by their throwing hand (left or right) and their usual role in games. A starting pitcher begins games, typically not more than one game in five, in a rotation with four teammates who are also starters who will start games in a sequential cycle, and usually pitch five or more innings. Starters rarely appear as substitutes in games started by others. A relief pitcher enters games later, sometimes on short notice in crisis situations in which there are already runners on base and/or the opponent's best hitters due to bat, and usually pitches fewer innings in any given game. But relievers may be called upon to pitch in several games consecutively. Some relievers even specialize further strictly as closers brought in just to pitch the last inning of a game in which his team leads by a narrow margin. Perhaps the most specialized group of relievers is left-handed specialists—left-handed pitchers who pitch almost exclusively to left-handed batters (sometimes to switch-hitters who are weaker batters right-handed). More often than not, such a pitcher will face only one batter in a given game.
Pitchers are sometimes secondarily grouped according to pitching style, type of pitch most often used, or velocity. However, there are many different variations on how the pitch is actually delivered, this includes the conventional overhand, in which the ball is thrown from the 12 o'clock position, and 3/4 styles (with the arm moving towards the plate between 12 and 3 o'clock) as well as the less common sidearm (3 o'clock arm angle, compare roundarm bowling in cricket) and 'submarine' (below 3 o'clock, compare underarm bowling in cricket) deliveries.
For reasons that continue to spur debate, it is historically the case that most right-handed pitchers succeed at higher rates against right-handed hitters than against left-handers, and that most left-handed pitchers succeed at higher rates against left-handed hitters than right-handers.
One substantial strategic element to baseball is to utilize this phenomenon as much as possible. Defenses try to force a match between pitcher and hitter by side, and offenses attempt to mismatch them; both teams use substitutions at times to accomplish the desired outcome. One response to this phenomenon is that many hitters, among them a number of the finest and most powerful to play the game, such as Mickey Mantle, Eddie Murray, and Chipper Jones, became adept as youngsters to hitting both left-handed and right-handed to prevent defenses from utilizing that advantage against them. Many professional clubs employ as many as two or three switch hitters so as to neutralize the advantage of side selection. However, no switch pitchers have played in the major leagues in modern times.
Leg Spin bowler Shane Warne about to release a Spin delivery during IPL
Australian Fast bowler Brett Lee's follow through
In addition, if a baseball batter is struck with a pitch, he is awarded first base; "hitting" the batter includes hitting loose parts of his uniform without hitting his body (baseball rules specify that a player's person includes his uniform and equipment). Pitchers may throw close to the batters, and a "brushback" is often used as an intimidation tactic. Deliberately hitting a batter is fairly uncommon, however, chiefly because it is punished severely. If the umpire believes a batter was intentionally hit, the umpire has his discretion on a first offense to warn both benches that the pitcher for either team will be expelled from the game if there are any further hit batsmen (the one baseball term in which "batsman" is used). The warning—and the power to expel if it is contravened—is intended not only to protect batters but to avert fighting; being hit by a fastball is taken seriously by batters, and bench-clearing brawls occasionally result when one team decides the other is deliberately throwing at its batters. Amazingly, in the history of the major league game, only one player has ever been killed by a pitched ball striking him in the head. This occurred before the invention of the batting helmet and was the principal cause for introducing this piece of equipment into the game.
In cricket, bowlers consider the right to hit a batsman as part of their armoury; indeed, one of the most common methods of dismissal (leg before wicket) requires the bowler to hit the batsman's body rather than his bat. A fast bowler will punctuate his overs with deliveries intended to bounce up toward the batsman's head, either to induce a poor shot from self-defence which may result in the batsman being caught out, or to intimidate the batsman, making him less likely to play forward to the next few deliveries for fear of injury. These tactics have long been an accepted part of cricket. In the modern game, batsmen usually wear helmets and heavy padding, so that being struck by the ball only rarely results in significant injury—though it is nevertheless often painful, sometimes causing concussion or fractures. Baseball batters wear helmets, but they are unsecured and lack the "cage" since only one side of the head/face is exposed. Catchers typically wear a helmet with a cage or protective bars. An equivalent ball to striking the batter in baseball would be a beamer, where the ball hits the batman's upper body area without bouncing first. These are rare and usually caused by the ball slipping out of the top of the bowler's hand. The even rarer intentional beamer provokes strong reaction from batsman and crowd alike. The umpire is authorized to take disciplinary action in such instances. The bowler is generally given a first warning, and is dismissed from the game if the offence is repeated. A notable case of this happening was between Waqar Younis and Andrew Symonds in which Younis was banned from bowling by umpire David Shepherd for delivering a beamer to Symonds During the match between Pakistan and Australia at the 2003 World Cup.
There is a major difference in the way in which different bowlers or pitchers contribute to a single game. In baseball, a single pitcher starts the game, and makes every pitch until a point where the manager replaces the tiring pitcher with a relief pitcher. Replaced pitchers cannot return to pitch again in the same game (unless they are shuttled to another position in the field and thus stay in the lineup, a move rarely done in the major leagues), and a succession of pitchers may come into the game in sequence until it ends. In cricket, multiple bowlers begin the game, with those not actively bowling spending time as fielders as every player in the team including the wicket-keeper but excluding the 12th man is available to be used as a bowler. Bowlers alternate bowling overs of six balls each, moving to fielding positions to rest before returning to bowl again later in the game. A bowler will usually bowl for a 'spell' of several (alternate) overs, and will generally bowl the entire spell from the same end of the pitch. A second bowler will bowl the overs missed by the first, from the other end of the pitch, for his own spell. Although moving a pitcher to a fielding position and returning him to pitch later in the game is legal in baseball, it is a rarely used and potentially risky strategy, as the pitcher may be unprepared to play another position.
The terms "bowling" and "pitching", as words, both denote underarm deliveries, as were once required in both games. The rules for delivery were also initially very similar. Once overhand deliveries were permitted in the respective sports, and pitchers were compelled to toe the pitching rubber instead of throwing from anywhere within the "pitcher's box", the actions of bowling and pitching diverged significantly.
The "wide" in cricket and the "ball" in baseball both derive from the concept of a "fair" delivery, i.e. a delivery that the batter or batsman has a fair chance of making contact with his bat. While there is no sharply defined "strike zone" in cricket as there is in baseball, in both cases the umpire must judge whether the ball was delivered fairly. Both the "wide" and the "ball" result in a "penalty". In cricket, like a no-ball a single run is charged and it does not count as a legal delivery. In baseball, a ball is called, and if a pitcher gives up four balls the batter is awarded first base, which is called a "base on balls" or a "walk". A walk will only score a run directly if the bases are already loaded, forcing the runner at third base to advance to home (known as "walking in a run"); otherwise the threat is merely of another runner reaching base instead of making an out. However since runs are scored so much more frequently in cricket, a wide scores a run directly shouldn't be taken too seriously, although the extra delivery can be of vital significance toward the end of a match. In both games, a wide or a ball can be the decisive factor in winning a match or a game.

[edit] Running

Running plays a much larger role in baseball because of the low scoring, because they must run much further in order to score, because runners may remain in play (that is, on the bases) without scoring, and because baserunners can advance to the next base before the ball is hit again (steal the base) as soon as the ball is live. Base stealing often requires sliding, in which the runner throws himself to the ground to avoid both being tagged and overrunning the base. The runner may also deliberately slide into the fielder at the base he is trying to steal to keep him from catching the ball or to disrupt a double play. At home plate the runner often will simply, and legally, run into a catcher who is blocking the baseline but who does not have the ball (a defensive player may not impede the runner unless he has the ball or is in the process of catching it).
The equivalent in cricket is almost impossible because the bowler is next to the runner, and in fact used to be able to mankad him if he strayed out of his crease; nowadays the batsman can leave the crease when the bowler's back foot touches the ground during his delivery action without risk of being 'Mankaded'. Tactical running in cricket rarely strays beyond the consideration of "can I make it to the other end before the ball does". One exception of this is towards the end of a limited overs game, where a batsman (normally a tail-ender) would sacrifice his wicket in order to allow the better batsman to remain on strike, usually in the last few balls. While in baseball, steals, sacrificial running, forces, double plays, intimidation, and physical contact enter into the equation.
Making contact with a fielder, as baserunners often do, would be unsportsmanlike in cricket, and unnecessary, as play stops when a single wicket is taken. Occasionally a cricket runner will dive over the crease, but in baseball this is a regular occurrence, as players are frequently forced to run even when their chances are slim.
Since a team almost always scores fewer runs in a baseball game than its number of outs, a baserunner will frequently take risks attempting to advance an extra base or score a run, resulting in close plays at a base. In cricket, since the number of runs scored is much greater than the number of wickets taken in a match, a batsman would be very foolish to risk getting run out in an attempt to score an extra run without a very high expected chance of success. In general, cricket batsmen are run out due to exceptional fielding, poor judgment/communication, or a combination of any of these factors. In baseball, runners are often out not of their own accord - they are simply forced out.

[edit] Strategy

A wide array of factors affect both games (from composition of the pitch or field soil to weather conditions, wind, and moisture) and numerous strategies in both games can be employed to exploit these different factors. Other than the bowler, cricket places very few restrictions on fielding placement, even for the wicket-keeper, and its variety of bowling styles, 360 degrees of open field, wide bowling area (target zone), and so on provide for strategic play. Notable exceptions include the limit of two fielders in the leg side quadrant, introduced to prevent the use of Bodyline tactics, and limiting outfield players in the early stages of one-day cricket matches. In baseball, has very specific rules about the positions of the pitcher and the catcher at the start of each play. The positioning of the other seven fielders is as flexible as cricket, except that each one must start the play positioned in fair territory. The fielders are otherwise free to position themselves anywhere on the playing field, at their discretion based on the game situation.

[edit] Condition of the ball

A major element of strategy in these sports is the condition of the ball. Since bowling in cricket has greater number of variations (such as bounce, swing, seam movement, off-spin, leg-spin and so on), the condition of the ball also affects play to a great degree. In Test cricket, the same ball must be used for at least 80 overs unless it is lost, damaged or illegally modified and then it must be replaced with a ball of a similar condition, after which, obtaining a new ball is at the discretion of the fielding captain whereas, in baseball the ball is replaced numerous times during an inning to ensure it is in optimum condition. Often, the fielding captain might opt for the new ball straightaway, since a new ball is harder, bounces higher and has an intact seam, which produces greater conventional swing. But when a captain feels that a spin bowling attack is more likely to be successful, he will persist with the old ball, which is rougher and better grips the surface as well the bowler's fingers.
The aerodynamics of swing in cricket are different from in baseball. Moreover, the raised seam also causes movement off the pitch in cricket, which is a very important part of medium pace bowling. Once a particular hemisphere of the cricket ball is more rough or scratched than the other, the fielding team meticulously works to preserve the shine on the other half by rubbing it on their clothes or by applying saliva (no "external" substances can be applied to alter the condition of the ball). Bowlers very carefully regulate their wrist position at the point of release to ensure the shine is preserved only on one half of the ball, since it will swing towards the rough side.
The old ball in cricket also tends to generate greater amounts of reverse swing, which is swing towards the polished side. This can be exploited by a captain with genuinely fast bowlers (usually, those who can bowl over 90 mph or 140 km/h) at his disposal. Especially on pitches in the Indian sub-continent, which tend to have abrasive surfaces, bowlers might resort to bowling across the seam as early as the tenth over, so as to quickly scruff up the ball and generate reverse swing early on. Strategies that rely on early reverse swing also need the backup of effective spin bowlers to be able to exploit the roughed up ball.
Due to these factors, a batsman in cricket needs to very carefully watch how the bowler grips the ball even during his run-up, as well as the type of revolutions on the ball as it approaches. Master spin bowlers like Shane Warne & Muttiah Muralitharan, who were able to dramatically vary the trajectory, direction and extent of spin, regularly bowled deliveries with a scrambled seam to disguise the type of ball actually bowled.

[edit] Batting first or last

In cricket, since the strategies are greatly influenced by factors such as soil characteristics of the pitch, condition of the ball, time of the day, weather and atmospheric conditions, the decision to bat first or last is of great tactical importance.
The team that wins the coin toss has the choice of batting first or last. Selection of batting first or last can be crucial to success; particularly in Test cricket. As the pitch is used for up to five consecutive days with little maintenance, the deterioration of the pitch with wear can have a major influence on the result of the match (e.g. Typically the ability of spin bowlers to ‘turn’ the ball increases toward the end of a Test match, whereas fast bowlers often prefer a harder and bouncier pitch often found at the start of a test match). It is usual for some amount of grass to be left on the pitch on the first day of a Test, since it helps bind the surface. The presence of grass on the pitch is conducive for pace bowling, so a grassy pitch may also tempt a captain to bowl first. Sometimes, current weather conditions also influence the decision, since a cloud cover has empirically been known to assist swing bowling. Aggressive captains such as Allan Border of Australia have been known to bat first in Test cricket regardless of the conditions.
In One Day International cricket, the time of day is also a crucial factor in determining the captain's decision at the toss. In some parts of the world, dew on the ground can be significant. For a day-night game, grounds in some countries like India or South Africa become wet due to dew, which makes it difficult for a spinner to grip the ball. The captain must balance this against a consideration for bowling becoming more effective under lights, since the ball might skid off any dew on the pitch or get assistance in swing from the cooler night-time air. Even for a day game, the captain might be inclined to exploit early morning dew on the pitch.
In baseball, on the other hand, the "home" team always bats last. This was not originally the case. In the early years, the winner of a coin toss could decide whether to bat first or last. The more offense-oriented aspect of the early game might influence a team's decision to bat first and hope to get a quick lead. This led to the occasional unfortunate situation where the home town crowd would have to watch their team lose a game in the last of the ninth inning, in "sudden victory" fashion by the visiting team. By the late 1800s, the rule was changed to compel the home team to bat last. At a "neutral" site, such as the College World Series, the "home" team may be decided by coin toss, but that "home" team must bat last.

[edit] Fielding strategy

The normal fielding arrangement in baseball.
In cricket, since the batsmen can hit the ball with greater variation and different objectives, the field placements are more important and varied. Modern-day coaches and captains have intricate knowledge of the strengths of opposition batsmen, so they try to plug the dominant scoring areas for each batsman. Moreover, since the bowling attack has greater variety in cricket, the field placements required for each type and line of attack also vary greatly.
Depending on the scoring strengths of the batsman (off-side, leg-side, straight, square, front foot, back foot, power hitter, "finds the gap", "clears the field" and so on), the captain must make adjustments to the field each time the batting pair score a run and change ends, which can possibly happen after every ball in an over. To meet the demands of a speedy over-rate (typically, about 15 overs an hour), the captain must arrange the fielders in a way that they can swiftly interchange positions for the two batsmen. This is especially important if one batsman is right-handed, while the other is left-handed. And also in one- day cricket if the umpires deem the over rate of the team fielding first is too slow they can dock them overs so they may have less than 50 overs to reach their target score when it is their turn to bat.
Fielders in cricket can field in all positions, but modern players have specialized field positions. In particular, slip positions require special skills since the slip fielder is placed behind the batsman and the ball comes directly off the edge of the bat. Close catching positions such as forward short leg and silly point, as well as positions for the cut shot such as gully and point, require very fast reflexes and canny anticipation, so they are also specialist positions.
Cricket strategy requires creative use of the many possible fielding positions.
In baseball, although only the positions of pitcher and catcher are prescribed by the rules, fielders' positions are dictated closely by custom, and shifts in fielders' positions according to circumstance are less dramatic; the strike zone and smaller angle of fair territory limit the usefulness of some strategies which cricket makes available to batsmen. The chief occasion on which fielding placement differs markedly from the usual is the presence of a pull, or dead-pull, hitter at bat (such hitters almost never, except on the rare occasion of a fluke or mishit, hit the ball in any direction except towards the same side of the field as they stand at the plate, i.e. a right-handed pull hitter hits everything toward left field). In such case the fielders will move so far in the direction of the pull that one half of the field is almost completely unprotected. This is called an overshift. A six-man infield has also been used when circumstances warrant. For the great majority of batters, however, the traditional fielding arrangement is used, with minor changes in position to accommodate the batter's power or bat-handling ability, the location of runners, or the number of outs. (For example, with a base runner on third with less than two out, the importance of fielders being able to throw quickly to home plate on a bunt is increased, and the infielders will play closer to home plate.) However, Baseball has no equivalent of Cricket's close-in fielders, because it is impractical to have fielders so close to the bat as they would have virtually no chance of latching onto a ball travelling so fast. It is possible to place a close-in fielder to catch a bunt, but this practice is not followed in real life.
In cricket, coaches cannot intervene or direct gameplay; the captain must make all the calls once the players are out on the field. However, the coach may convey messages to the captain or the players at any time, since there is no restriction on signaling or speaking to players on the field. In dynamic situations, like a run chase with an imminent possibility of rain, it is quite common for coaches to update tactics using signals. Hansie Cronje, the former cricket captain of South Africa, once took the field with a wireless link to the coach, Bob Woolmer. Subsequently, the use of gadgets to transmit messages was banned by the International Cricket Council. Regardless, the coach is merely an adviser, it is almost always the case that the cricket captain has complete authority over the team once play starts. In baseball, by contrast, managers and coaches will often direct the players (through hand signals) to carry out a play (such as a stolen base or hit and run), or to field at a particular depth.

[edit] Strategy over the course of the game

Pickoff attempt on runner (in red) at first base
In both sports, strategy varies with the game situation. In baseball, pitcher, batter and fielders all play far differently in the late innings of a close game (e.g., waiting for walks, trying for stolen bases or the squeeze play to score a decisive run) than they do early, or when one team has already scored many more runs than the other (where batters will be likely to swing at many more pitches and try for extra-base hits and even home runs). The number, speed, and position of baserunners, which have no equivalent in cricket, all dramatically change the strategies used by pitcher and batter. A runner on first base must decide how large a lead to take off the base—the larger the lead, the greater the chance of advancing on a stolen base or batted ball, but also the greater the risk of being picked off by the pitcher. In leagues which do not allow designated hitters, strategic thinking also enters into substitutions. For example, in the double switch, the substitution of a relief pitcher is combined with the substitution of a pinch hitter who takes the pitcher's spot in the batting order so that the new pitcher will come to bat later (as almost all pitchers are poor hitters). Since players may not return to the game after being substituted for, a manager cannot take lightly the decision when and if to substitute a better-fielding but worse-hitting player if his team is ahead.
The essential action in baseball is either (for the offense) to advance runners around the bases or (for the defense) to halt that advance. As simple as this is in principle, in practice it generates a remarkably large range of strategies. Any given situation—the number of runners on base, the bases they occupy, their skills as runners or base-stealers, the count on the hitter, the number of outs, the specialties of the pitcher and the batter, the catcher's skill at throwing out runners, the positioning of fielders, which inning is being played, and so on—allows for a considerable variety of possible plays, on either side of the ball. At any moment, one manager may be calculating how to advance his runners (whether to call for the steal, the hit-and-run, sacrifice bunt, sacrifice fly, a double steal, the squeeze, and so on) while the opposing manager is calculating how best to thwart his opponent (not only through the pitching approach and positioning of fielders, but by, say, calling for a pitch-out when a steal is anticipated, and so on). Since the variables that determine which strategies are possible or advisable change from pitch to pitch, and according to all the varieties of play situation that may come about in any game, the game played between the two managers is the most intricate aspect of the game, and for many followers of the sport[who?] is considered the true 'inner game'. In this sense, baseball is far more of a 'board game' than cricket is.
First-class cricket also has a number of strategic elements not found in baseball, simply because the maximum time duration of the game is fixed (which can be up to five days for Test cricket) and a match not completed by the end of the time duration results in a draw regardless of the relative score. By contrast, baseball games are played to completion regardless of the time duration and there is no possibility for a tie or draw (with the exception of certain exhibition games such as the MLB All-Star Game, or in the case of Japan, where games are declared ties after 12 innings[7][8]). There are no equivalents in baseball of, for example, deciding when to declare or whether or not to make your opponent follow on.

[edit] Strategy based on the playing surface

The condition of the playing strip (the pitch) in cricket is of vital significance as, unlike baseball, the ball is deliberately bounced on the pitch before reaching the batsman. While in baseball, playing conditions between different stadia are much the same (except for perhaps small differences in the dimensions of the field, whether the outfield is fast or slow, and if the field is grass or artificial turf), the physical characteristics of the cricket pitch can vary over the course of the game, or from one field to another, or from one country to another. On the Indian subcontinent, for instance, pitches tend to be dry, dusty and soft. These pitches offer less assistance to fast bowlers because the ball tends to bounce slower and lower, where most fast bowlers rely on bounce and speed to defeat the batsman. On the other hand, spin bowlers prefer this surface because it gives greater traction to the ball and will result in the ball breaking or turning more when it hits the surface. When such a delivery is bowled, the ball is said to have "turned". Conversely, pitches in places such as Australia, England, South Africa or the West Indies tend to be hard, true surfaces, called "batting wickets" or "roads" because the ball bounces uniformly and thus batsman find it easier to score runs, although these wickets suit fast bowlers more than spinners. Accordingly, teams are generally much harder to beat in their own country, where both their batsmen and bowlers are presumably suited to the types of pitches encountered there. On any given pitch, however, conditions will become more suitable for spinners as time progresses as the pitch becomes softer and worn through use, making the spin bowler something of a cricketing "closer".
Baseball parks are also not completely uniform, however many of the variations in playing conditions in baseball also arise in cricket. Stadiums with retractable roofs, for example, usually play differently with and without the roof. For example, with the roof open the wind will affect how far the ball carries. Against a running team the basepaths may be heavily watered. Many stadiums have idiosyncratic features – for example, the short right field and high left field wall (called the Green Monster) at Fenway Park, the hill and flagpole in the outfield (Tal's Hill) at Minute Maid Park, or numerous "porches" (parts of the grandstands hanging over the outfield, such as the "Short Porch in Right" at Yankee Stadium) which allow short home runs. There is an equivalent for this in cricket, where the placement of the pitch may render one perpendicular boundary significantly shorter than the other. For example, at a particular ground, the leg-side boundary may be 15 feet closer to the batsman than the off-side boundary. Such a boundary can then be targeted by batmen in search of quick runs.
The altitude of the stadium (most notably Coors Field) can also impact the distance a batted ball travels and the amount of ball movement a pitcher can generate with his deliveries, although recently balls have begun being placed in humidors at high-altitude parks to negate these effects. The baseball behaves differently in those stadiums with artificial turf as well. The amount of moisture in the dirt on the basepaths can also affect the behavior of ground balls and the ease with which players may steal bases; some teams are known to alter the amount of watering done to the dirt depending on the skills of the home and visiting team. The amount of foul territory is also an important variable, since foul pop-ups that would be outs in some parks (e.g. the Oakland Coliseum) may end up in the stands in other parks, thereby allowing the batter to remain at the plate (e.g. Fenway Park and Coors Field). On the whole, though, these variations do not produce effects as great as variations in cricket pitches, with one arguable exception being Coors Field.

[edit] Strategy based on batting order

The batting order in baseball must be declared before the game begins, and can only be changed if a substitution occurs. Batting out of turn is a rule violation resulting in a penalty. When a manager makes a substitution, the new player must occupy the same place in the batting order as the old one. To allow more complicated changes in batting order, managers may use the double switch, substituting for two players simultaneously. This is typically used to replace the pitcher but put the new pitcher in a spot in the batting order that will not come up to bat soon, previously occupied by another fielder (pitchers are almost uniformly poor hitters much like most frontline bowlers are poor batsmen). However, the rule remains that no individual player can ever change his position in the batting order within the same game.
Unlike baseball, the batting order in cricket is not fixed, and can be changed at any time, provided each player bats at most once. This gives rise to the "pinch hitter" in cricket - a non-specialist batsman promoted up the order to get quick runs -, and the Nightwatchman. This latter is typically a non-batsman promoted up the order at the end of the day to avoid a better batsman having to make two cold starts, a particular risk. If a batsman is not ready to bat at the fall of a wicket, another batsman- typically the player who occuipes the next spot in the batting order will go out to bat in his place in order to eliminate the risk of him being timed out.
The roles of individual players in the batting order are strikingly similar. In both sports, the players near the top of the batting order are considered superior batters or batsmen. The initial batters or batsmen generally specialize in avoiding making outs, while the third through fifth batters and batsmen are considered their team's best at providing runs. After that, the talent generally drops off, with the pitchers and bowlers generally being the worst at batting. However, since in baseball a batter who puts the ball in play does not get another at-bat until the entire batting order is cycled through, the opposing team may pitch around a skilled batter, walking him or otherwise relying on getting other batters out. In cricket, a batsman remains at the pitch until he is out (or the team is all out or, his captain declares or, the set number of overs have been bowled), and the other team must bowl to him until he is out. The only way captains can negate the influence of superior batters similar to pitching around is to try and keep the more skilled batsman off-strike. This can be seen at the end of closely fought Test matches, where a captain might try and maximize the number of deliveries his bowlers can bowl at a non-specialist batsman. The exception is if the player is injured and has to leave the field for treatment, the next batsman in the order will take his place. If the original batsman is able to continue later on, he can join the game again when one of his teams batsmen is out provided his injury time has expired or after 5 wickets have fallen, whichever comes first.

[edit] Game length

A direct comparison is difficult since cricket is predominantly played three different formats: Test, One Day and Twenty20. Of these, the Twenty20 format is similar in terms of the amount of time it takes to play a game of baseball, around three to three-and-a-half hours. Baseball games are generally much shorter than Test and One Day cricket games. Most Major League Baseball games last between two-and-a-half and four-and-a-half hours. Because the Major League playing season is 6 months long (183 days, between April and October with Spring Training in February and March), with 81 games played at home and 81 away (162 in all, not counting the postseason or the All-Star Game), baseball teams often find themselves playing double-headers and series games. A doubleheader entails two games, played back to back, in one day. This usually occurs when a game needed to be rescheduled, and is fairly common. A series occurs when two teams play on several consecutive days. This is an even more common occurrence in baseball because of the number of games required in a season, and because there are large distances between stadiums in the U.S. and Canada, thus conserving time and resources by allowing the teams to spend several days in a single location. In Major League Baseball there is a maximum of 20 days consecutively played before a break in games must be observed.
Test Cricket games can last up to five days with scheduled breaks each day for lunch and tea, giving three sessions of play each day. The one-day games version of the sport usually lasts from five to seven hours, but can sometimes continue for longer than eight hours. Twenty20 has innings of twenty overs per team. The average time it takes to play an individual game of Twenty20 cricket is similar to the amount of time it takes to play a game of baseball, around three to three-and-a-half hours.
ODI and Twenty20 cricket, with their inherent limit on the number of fair deliveries, do not have an exact equivalent in baseball. The closest comparison would be games that have a pre-set number of innings shorter than the standard 9 (as with the second game of a doubleheader at some levels) or a pre-set time limit of some kind, such as a curfew restriction, or in the case of one of baseball's cousins, recreational softball, a pre-set length of the game, such as one hour.

[edit] Equipment

Professional baseball bats are typically made of ash or maple; hickory used to be popular, as well.
Baseball players use thin, round bats and wear gloves to field, while cricketers use wide, flat bats and field barehanded (except for the wicket-keeper, who wears gloves and protective leg pads). In cricket a batsman wears protective gear such as pads, gloves, thigh pads, helmet, a chest guard, an arm pad and a box (which is used to protect the groin area), whereas the only required protective gear for baseball batters is an unsecured helmet (as required in major league baseball rule 1.16); many batters also use elbow, shin, ankle, hand, or groin protectors, and most use batting gloves (similar to golf gloves) to aid grip.
Another difference between the two sports involves the condition of the ball as a match progresses. In cricket, if a ball is hit into the stands, the spectators must return it to the field. Also, a ball that is scuffed or scratched will continue in use; a ball must be used for a minimum number of overs (currently 80 in Test cricket & 25 in One-Day-International Cricket with a different ball being used from each end) before it can be replaced. If a ball is damaged, lost, or illegally modified, it is replaced by a used ball of similar condition to the old one. Finally, cricketers are allowed sparingly to modify the ball, though this is highly restricted. The ball may be polished (usually on a player's uniform) without the use of an artificial substance, may be dried with a towel if it is wet, and have mud removed from it under supervision; all other actions which alter the condition of the ball are illegal. In Major League Baseball, a ball that is hit into the stands is never returned to play and spectators are free to keep any balls that come into their possession (although local tradition may provide for a ball to be thrown back, specifically in the case of home-run balls hit against the Chicago Cubs when playing at Wrigley Field).
Moreover, baseballs are replaced on a regular interval during the course of a game. Major League Baseball requires the home team to supply the baseballs that will be used during that day's games. The MLB further require that the home team make available at least 90 new baseballs to the umpires prior to the start of the game. Generally, a baseball is replaced every time it either is hit by a batter or touches the ground. In a typical Major League Baseball game, baseballs are replaced every 5 pitches or so with a total game average of around 70 baseballs being used.
Because baseball hitting is difficult, baseball rules prohibit the deliberate scratching or scuffing of a ball, or the application of any foreign substance that could conceivably affect the flight or visibility of a ball. Balls that are deliberately made more difficult to hit by applying foreign substances are often known as spitballs, regardless of the specific substance applied (such as Vaseline). Both spitballs and those that become scuffed or scratched through normal game play are immediately removed from play and never reused. The current rules regarding the condition of baseballs did not come into effect until 1920, after the death of Ray Chapman from being hit with a Carl Mays spitball. Before that point, the rules were similar to those still present in cricket. However, the new rules were not consistently enforced for several decades afterwards, and several pitchers (most notably Gaylord Perry) built careers around skirting these rules, doing such things as hiding nail files in their gloves or putting Vaseline on the underside of their hats. In modern baseball, however, the prohibition against modifying the baseball in almost any way is strictly enforced and players found to be in violation of this rule are not only ejected from the game in which the infraction occurred, but are also subject to a suspension. The only substance applied to a baseball is the Delaware River mud formula that umpires rub in before a game to remove the "shine" from the ball and improve its grip. The pitcher is also allowed to use rosin on his hands (via a rosin bag) to improve his grip, and to blow on his hands in cold weather.

[edit] Statistics

Both games have a long history of using a vast array of statistics.The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire. Every play or delivery is logged, and from the log, or scoresheet, is derived a summary report .Baseball commonly uses times at bat, base hits, RBIs, stolen bases, errors, strikeouts and other occurrences. These are then often used to rate the player. Although cricket uses detailed statistics as a guide, owing to the variety of situations in cricket, they are not always considered a true reflection of the player. Ian Botham is an example of a player who, despite relatively poor averages, was particularly noted as one of England's greatest cricketers for his ability to dominate games.[9]
In baseball, questioning of the validity and utility of conventional baseball statistics has led to the creation of the field of sabermetrics, which assesses alternatives to conventional statistics. Conclusions are sometimes drawn from inadequate samples – for example, an assertion that a batter has done poorly against a specific pitcher, when they have only faced each other a handful of times, or that a player is "clutch" due to having more success with runners in scoring position or during the late innings with rather small sample sizes.

[edit] Culture

Children playing cricket on a makeshift pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket on such pitches and makeshift grounds.
Both sports play an important part in the culture of the societies in which they are popular. Baseball is deeply ingrained in the American psyche, and is known in the United States as "the national pastime". It is one of the sports most readily identified with the United States. Baseball references abound in American English, and the sport is well represented in American cinema in numerous baseball movies. Baseball also plays important cultural in many parts of Latin America, (specifically Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), as well as in East Asia. Many terms and expressions from the sport have entered the English lexicon. Examples are "getting to first base," "coming out of left field," "having two strikes against him/her," "he struck out," "that's a home run," and "southpaw" (baseball diamonds are traditionally built with home plate to the west so hitters do not have to fight the setting sun as well as the pitch, a pitcher's left arm is always to the south).
Cricket has an equally strong influence on the culture of many nations, mainly Commonwealth nations, including England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Kenya, Zimbabwe, the English-speaking Caribbean and especially in the Indian-subcontinent where it is often said to be followed like a religion. Canada has seen a marked increase in domestic, as well as interest in international cricket, over the past decade. This can be attributed, in large part, to the growing subcontinental diaspora in Canada. Cricket is the most popular sport or a major sport in most former British Colonies. Like baseball, cricket has had an influence on the lexicon of these nations with such phrases as "that's not cricket" (unfair), "had a good innings", "sticky wicket", "played with a straight bat" and "bowled over".
The ten Test-playing nations regularly participate in tours of other nations to play usually both a Test and One Day International series. Twenty20 is becoming more popular in international competition. The amateur game has also been spread further afield by expatriates from the Test-playing nations. Many of these minor cricketing nations (including the USA and Canada and other nations, such as the Netherlands, which do not have a British heritage) compete to qualify for the Cricket World Cup. The very first international cricket match was played between the USA and Canada.[10][11]
Baseball in a similar way has also been spread around the world, most notably in Central America, and east Asia. Canadian baseball developed as a minor league sport in parallel to the US major leagues before eventually joining them, first with the Montreal Expos in 1969 (now the Washington Nationals) and then with the Toronto Blue Jays in 1977. Though baseball has not yet made its mark in professional international competition, its popularity is slowly growing around the world, especially with the emergence of competitions like the World Baseball Classic. Interestingly, there have been several Australian Major League Baseball players, a country where cricket is more popular by far.
The nature of the top elite level in both sports differs markedly. Nearly all cricket revenue comes from international matches,[citation needed] and domestic leagues serve largely as a development ground for international players. By contrast nearly all baseball revenue comes from domestic leagues, most notably in the United States and Japan.[citation needed]
Cricket's international programme allows the weaker cricketing nations to play against the best in the world, and the players have the chance to become national heroes. On the other hand, the dominance of national teams also means that a great many talented cricketers in nations such as Australia and India will never receive recognition or prestige unless they make it into the national team.[citation needed]

[edit] Sportsmanship

Standards of sportsmanship differ. In cricket, the standard of sportsmanship has historically been considered so high that the phrase 'it's just not cricket' was coined in the 19th Century to describe unfair or underhanded behavior in any walk of life. In the last few decades though, cricket has become increasingly fast-paced and competitive, increasing the use of appealing and sledging, although players are still expected to abide by the umpires' rulings without argument, and for the most part they do. Even in the modern game fielders are known to signal to the umpire that a boundary was hit, despite what could have been a spectacular save (though this may well be that they will be found out by the TV umpire anyway) and also signal if they did not take a catch even if it appeared that they did. In addition to this, some cricket batsmen have been known to "walk" when they think they are out even if the umpire does not declare them out. This is considered a very high level of sportsmanship, as a batsman can easily take advantage of incorrect umpiring decisions but with the introduction of the decision review system this has become more difficult if the system is in use.
In baseball, a player correcting an umpire's call to his own team's detriment is unheard of, at least at the professional level. Individual responsibility and vigilance are part of the game's tradition. It is the umpire's responsibility to make the right call, and matters of judgment are final. Similarly, when a runner misses a base or leaves too early on a caught fly ball, the umpire keeps silent, as it is the fielder's responsibility to know where the runners are and to make an appeal. When a fielder pretends not to know where the ball is (the "hidden ball trick"), the umpire keeps silent, as it is the runner's responsibility to know where the ball is.
Analogous concepts and similar terms
Term Cricket Baseball
each team's batting turn an innings (either singular or plural) a half-inning or side; innings is a plural term
player who delivers the ball to start play a bowler, who bowls a pitcher, who pitches
player who strikes at the ball batsman (The term batter is used in women's cricket, however) batter (The word batsman is often used, however, in the phrase "hit batsman.")
distance between above two players 22 yards (66 feet) or 20.1 metres (approx. 58 ft or 17.7 m between the bowler and batsman at delivery) 60 feet 6 inches or 18.4 m (approx. 58 ft or 17.7 m between pitcher and batter at delivery)
fielder behind the player batting wicket-keeper (or "keeper" for short) catcher
batting order flexible predetermined
player's batting turn (batting) innings, knock plate appearance, at-bat, ups
batting stance (a.k.a. guard) bat held vertically, with the handle upwards, and the bottom edge on the ground bat held cocked in the air behind the head
hitting the ball shot or stroke hit - also shot, stroke, knock, etc.
carrying bat after striking batsman carries bat while running and uses it as an extension of his body batter drops bat after hitting and while running
edge of the field boundary (or boundary rope) fence, wall
scoring over the boundary or fence runs are scored if the ball touches or lands over the boundary; six runs (six) if on the full, four runs (four) if on the bounce or along the ground. home run if on the fly (and fair) - one, two, three, or four runs depending on the number of runners on base; automatic double if on the bounce from fair territory - batter and any runners on base may advance only two bases; thus, only a maximum of two runs may be scored
Hits inside the field result in... zero to four runs (or more in unusual circumstances such as misfields, overthrows, lost balls or a ball striking a piece of the fielding team's equipment such as hats, helmets etc. which is an automatic five run penalty) runners advancing, with possibility of one or more runners reaching home for a run.
hitting the ball in a specific area placement place hitting
hitting the ball high into the air, liable to being caught skyer (or skier), spooning it up, "scooping the ball", "flier" fly ball, pop fly, popup, "skying it"
catching the ball in flight catch fly out or catch (see in flight)
dismissing a batsman/batter a wicket an out
dismissal types run out, caught, bowled, leg before wicket, stumped, hit wicket, handled the ball, hit the ball twice, obstructing the field, timed out (the last four are very rare) tag out, fly out, force out, strike out, interference (similar to obstructing the field in cricket, but more common)
dismissal procedure appeal to an umpire – an out cannot be given without an appeal from the fielding side, unless the batsman leaves the field on his own (Law 27). automatic – most outs are called immediately by umpires; some potential outs require an appeal play to be called.
curving deliveries leg breaks, off breaks, leg cutters and off cutters change direction after bouncing; if before bouncing, the away swing or outswinger curves away from batter, the in swing or inswinger curves toward batter breaking balls curve in the air; the curveball/slider/cut fastball away from the pitching-hand side, the sinker, splitter, and forkball unexpectedly dip downwards (as can a curveball; see 12–6 curveball), the rare screwball bends toward pitching-hand side, as will the increasingly common circle change, and the unpredictable knuckleball which can literally move in any direction, and often can cork screw
a delivery not in a good hitting zone wide ball
fielding miscue misfield error
central/inner playing arena wicket, pitch or strip infield or diamond
sides of the field Assuming a right-handed batsman, the "Off side" is the side to his right, while the side to his left is called the "Leg side" (as that is the side closest to the batsman's legs) or sometimes the "On side". Reverse for a left-handed batsman. "Left field" is always to the batter's left and "right field" is always to the batter's right (when facing the pitcher), regardless of the side of the plate he hits from. The term "opposite field" in baseball is equivalent to "off side", as it is the side of the baseball field in front of the batter as he faces the pitcher.
substitution injured players can be replaced for fielding and running, not bowling, batting or keeping wicket (Law 2) players can be replaced in lineup for any reason; once removed they cannot return (except in certain youth leagues such as Little League which allow a "courtesy runner" for a pitcher, some recreational leagues and exhibition games, and in special rules such as designated hitter); baseball substitution rule was originally also only in case of injury; unlike cricket, the replacement could also bat
delivery toward the head "bouncer", "beamer" or sometimes "beamball" - umpire may warn or eject the bowler "beanball" - umpire may warn or eject the pitcher
Words used in both sports, possibly with different meanings

a ball any legal delivery by the bowler a legal delivery not entering the strike zone nor swung at by the batter. If a batter receives four balls during one plate appearance, he is awarded a base on balls.
drive powerfully hit ball from the face of the bat, usually with the bat positioned vertically or close to vertically powerfully hit ball (could be a hit, or caught for an out)
infield the area of the field less than 30 yards (27 m) from the pitch (basically oval in shape) the area of the field inside the grass line and immediately near the "diamond"; the "diamond" is the area inside the baselines, which are straight lines either drawn between bases (home plate to first - third to home plate) or imaginary (first to second and second to third); the "diamond" is thus a square 90 feet (27 m) on a side but is called such because of how it appears as seen from home plate.
inning(s) an innings is a period of batting, it can refer to that of a whole team, or an individual player an inning is one period of batting for each team (3 outs per half-inning)
lineup the "batting lineup" means the players who are regarded as strong batsmen. a "strong or long batting lineup" might mean 7 or 8 recognised batsmen. the players playing in a given game
out a batsman is "given out" by an umpire when he is dismissed via a number of different ways. "outs" is never used. batters can be "out"; when there are three "outs" the inning is over; the term "retired" is also used.
outfield the area of the field more than 30 yards (27 m) from the pitch the fair-territory area outside the grass line
pinch hitter batsman promoted up the batting order to score runs quickly in a one-day game (deliberately borrowed from the baseball term) substitute for another batter
  • the playing arena (term also used in soccer)
  • the area on the pitch in which the bowler intends to bounce the ball
the act of throwing the ball toward the batter
retire a batsman can decide to stop batting partway through their innings, or "retire" (this is usually due to injury, in which case they have "retired hurt") to retire a batter means to get the batter out; when three outs are completed, ending the batting team's turn in an inning, the team on the field is said to have "retired the side"
pull an aggressive shot hit with a horizontal bat towards the legside boundary, typically played to a short delivery similarly, to hit a pitch towards the side of the field closer to the hitter (left field for a right-handed hitter and vice versa)
run unit of scoring, achieved by the batsmen changing ends in one movement unit of scoring, achieved by batter visiting all four bases in succession, in up to four movements
single stroke which scores one run hit which allows the batter to advance to first base. It can score one run or more if runners are on base. A lone run in an inning can be called a "singleton".
walk to leave the field when out without waiting for the umpire's decision slang for a base on balls: to advance to first base after receiving four balls

Outline of cricket

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A bowler bowling to a batsman.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cricket:
Cricket – a bat-and-ball team sport. Many variations exist, with its most popular form played on an oval-shaped outdoor arena known as a cricket field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard (20.12 m) long pitch that is the focus of the game. A game (or match) is contested between two teams of eleven players each. One team bats, and will try to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the runs scored by the batting team. A run is scored by the striking batsman hitting the ball with his bat, running to the opposite end of the pitch and touching the crease there without being dismissed. The teams switch between batting and fielding at the end of an innings.



[edit] What type of thing is cricket?

  • Exercise – bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health or wellness.
  • Game – structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional sports).
    • Ball game – game played with a ball.
      • Bat-and-ball game – field game played by two teams which alternate between "batting" and "fielding" roles. The fielding team defends, so only the batting team may score, but they have equal chances in both roles.
  • Sport – form of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants.
    • Competitive sport – sport in which one or more participants or teams compete against one another. The one that is the most successful in achieving the objective of the game or sport event is the winner.
    • Team sport – sport that involves players working together towards a shared objective.
    • Recreational sport – sport engaged in as a leisure time activity.
    • Spectator sport – sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its matches. Spectator sports are a form of entertainment.
    • Professional sport – sport in which the athletes receive payment for their performance.

[edit] Forms of cricket

[edit] Classes of professional cricket

  • International cricket
    • Test cricket — The highest level of the sport, Test matches are played over a maximum of five days with two innings per side.
    • One Day International (ODI) — International matches played with one innings per side, fixed at 50 overs.
    • Twenty20 International — International matches played with one innings per side, fixed at 20 overs.
  • Domestic cricket — cricket as played within a particular country.
    • First class cricket — Similar to Test cricket, these matches are player over three or more days with two innings per side.
    • List-A cricket — Similar to ODI, matches are played with one innings per side of a fixed number of overs, usually between 40 and 60.
    • Twenty20 — Matches played with one 20 over innings per side.
    • Club cricket — mainly amateur, but still formal, form of the game, usually involving teams playing in competitions at weekends or in the evening.

[edit] Other forms of cricket

  • Kwik cricket — a high-speed version of cricket aimed mainly at encouraging children to take part in the main sport. Known as MILO Kanga cricket in Australia, and MILO Kiwi Cricket in New Zealand.
  • Backyard cricket — also known as "street cricket", "beach cricket", "gully cricket", and "garden cricket", it is an informal ad hoc variant of the game of cricket, played by people of both sexes and all ages in gardens, back yards, on the street, in parks, carparks, beaches and any area not specifically intended for the purpose.
  • French cricket — informal variation, in which there is only one batsman, the objective of whom is not to be dismissed by the other participants - who are fielders, or a bowler if they have possession of the ball - for as long as possible.

[edit] Equipment of the game

  • Cricket ball — hard solid ball constructed of cork and leather, used to play cricket.
  • Cricket bat — specialised wooden bat used to strike the ball.
  • Cricket field
  • Cricket Whites - the traditional uniform worn.
  • Stump - the target, at which the bowler aims
  • Bail (cricket) - the small items on the stumps, which the bowler is aiming to dislodge

[edit] Training and practice equipment

  • Bowling machine — device which enables a batsman to practice (usually in the nets) and to hone specific skills through repetition of the ball being bowled at a certain length, line and speed. It can also be used when there is no-one available to bowl, or no one of the desired style or standard.

[edit] Rules of the game

  • Dismissal — occurs when the batsman is out (also known as the fielding side taking a wicket and/or the batting side losing a wicket). Colloquially, the fielding team is also said to have snared, bagged or captured a wicket. At this point a batsman must discontinue batting and leave the field permanently for the innings.
  • Innings
  • Appeal — the act of a bowler or fielder shouting at the umpire to ask if his last ball took the batsman's wicket. Usually phrased in the form of howzat (how-is-that?). Common variations include 'Howzee?' (how is he?), or simply turning to the umpire and shouting.[1] The batsman will not be given out without an appeal, even if the criteria for a dismissal have otherwise been met.

[edit] Game play

  • Batting — the act or skill of hitting the cricket ball with a cricket bat to score runs or prevent the loss of one's wicket.
  • Bowling — the act of delivering the ball to the batsman with the aim of getting him out, or preventing him from scoring.
  • Fielding — the act of operating in the cricket field to retrieve the ball, facilitate a run out or catch, or prevent scoring opportunities.

[edit] Cricket, by region

[edit] History of cricket

[edit] Professional cricket

[edit] International cricket

[edit] International cricket teams

  1.  Australia (5 January 1971)
  2.  England (5 January 1971)
  3.  New Zealand (11 February 1973)
  4.  Pakistan (11 February 1973)
  5.  West Indies (5 September 1973)
  6.  India (13 July 1974)
  7.  Sri Lanka (7 June 1975)
  8.  Zimbabwe (9 June 1983)
  9.  Bangladesh (31 March 1986)
  10.  South Africa (10 November 1991)
The ICC temporarily grants ODI status to other teams; at present these are:
  •  Kenya (from 18 February 1996, until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
  •  Canada (from 1 January 2006 until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
  •  Ireland (from 1 January 2006 until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
  •  Netherlands (from 1 January 2006 until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
  •  Scotland (from 1 January 2006 until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)
  •  Afghanistan (from 19 April 2009 until the 2013 ICC World Cup Qualifier)

[edit] Players

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Barclays World of Cricket – 2nd Edition, 1980, Collins Publishers, ISBN 0-00-216349-7, pp 636–643.

[edit] References

  • H S Altham, A History of Cricket, Volume 1 (to 1914), George Allen & Unwin, 1962
  • Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999
  • Rowland Bowen, Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970
  • Wisden Cricketers Almanack (annual): various editions

Women's cricket

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The 2nd Women's Test match between Australia and England in Sydney in 1935.
Women's cricket is the form of the team sport of cricket that is played by women.



[edit] History

The first recorded match of women's cricket was reported in The Reading Mercury on 26 July 1745, a match contested "between eleven maids of Bramley and eleven maids of Hambledon, all dressed in white."[1] The first known women's cricket club was formed in 1887 in Yorkshire, named the White Heather Club. Three years later a team known as the Original English Lady Cricketers toured England, reportedly making substantial profits before their manager absconded with the money. In Australia, a women's cricket league was set up in 1894, while in South Africa, Port Elizabeth had a women's cricket team, the Pioneers Cricket Club.[2] In Canada, Victoria also had a women's cricket team that played at Beacon Hill Park.[3].
In 1958 the International Women's Cricket Council (IWCC) was formed to co-ordinate women's cricket around the world, taking over from the English Women's Cricket Association, which had been doing the same job in a de facto role since its creation 32 years earlier. In 2005, the IWCC was merged with the International Cricket Council (ICC) to form one unified body to help manage and develop cricket.

[edit] Women's international cricket

Women's cricket has been played internationally since the inaugural women's Test match between England women and Australia women in December 1934. The following year, New Zealand women joined them, and in 2007 Netherlands women became the tenth women's Test nation when they made their debut against South Africa women. Since 1973, women's One Day Internationals (ODIs) have also been contested, and these quickly became the focus of women's international cricket. In the years since the inception of women's ODIs more than eight times more of this format has been played than women's Test cricket. The Women's Cricket World Cup has been held nine times, with Australia, England and New Zealand sharing the titles. In 2004, a shorter format still was introduced, with the introduction of women's Twenty20 cricket. Initially, women's Twenty20 cricket was played little at international level, with only four matches played by the end of 2006. However, the following three years saw a rapid growth, with six matches been played in 2007, ten in 2008 and thirty in 2009, which also saw the first ICC Women's World Twenty20.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Buckley, George Bent (1935). Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket: A Collection of 1000 Cricket Notices from 1697 to 1800 AD Arranged in Chronological Order. Birmingham: Cotterell.
  2. ^ "The History of the SA & Rhodesian Women's Cricket Association". St George's Park. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  3. ^

[edit] External links

Women’s cricket:Aus to play ODIs, T20s in India